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Entire Online Archive: "natural and history": 2000 results 

A total of 39889 files matched your search. The oldest files are not included in the result set.

Japan: Painting of a 'mermaid' reportedly captured in Toyoma Bay in 1805. The accompanying text records that the creature was 10.6 metres long. - A mermaid is a mythological aquatic creature with a female human head and torso and the tail of a fish. Mermaids are represented broadly in folklore, literature, and popular culture. In Japan mermaids are called ningyo or 'fish people'. An old Japanese belief was that eating the flesh of a ningyo could grant immortality. Noted natural historian Baien Mouri (1798-1851), a prolific illustrator known for his colorful depictions of plants and animals, included two sketches of a mermaid in his 1835 book Baien Gyofu ('Baien Book of Fish').  © Pictures From History / The Image Works
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Japan: Painting of a 'mermaid' reportedly captured in Toyoma Bay in 1805. The accompanying text records that the creature was 10.6 metres long. - A mermaid is a mythological aquatic creature with a female human head and torso and the tail of a fish. Mermaids are represented broadly in folklore, literature, and popular culture. In Japan mermaids are called ningyo or 'fish people'. An old Japanese belief was that eating the flesh of a ningyo could grant immortality. Noted natural historian Baien Mouri (1798-1851), a prolific illustrator known for his colorful depictions of plants and animals, included two sketches of a mermaid in his 1835 book Baien Gyofu ('Baien Book of Fish'). © Pictures From History / The Image Works
Paris, France: 57 rue Cuvier. Museum of Natural History, Jardin des Plantes. Overview of the central part of the garden. Paris (5th arr.). Glass plate. Photograph of Charles Lansiaux (1855-1939), June 28, 1917. History Department of Architecture and Archeology of Paris. © Charles Lansiaux/DHAAP/Roger-Viollet/ The Image Works
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Paris, France: 57 rue Cuvier. Museum of Natural History, Jardin des Plantes. Overview of the central part of the garden. Paris (5th arr.). Glass plate. Photograph of Charles Lansiaux (1855-1939), June 28, 1917. History Department of Architecture and Archeology of Paris. © Charles Lansiaux/DHAAP/Roger-Viollet/ The Image Works
Maldives: Woman weaving a grass kunaa mat by loom, Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.  The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka.  ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Maldives: Woman weaving a grass kunaa mat by loom, Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.

The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka. ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Maldives: Woman weaving a grass kunaa mat by loom, Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.  The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka.  ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Maldives: Woman weaving a grass kunaa mat by loom, Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.

The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka. ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Maldives: Woman weaving a grass kunaa mat by loom, Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.  The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka.  ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Maldives: Woman weaving a grass kunaa mat by loom, Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.

The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka. ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Maldives: A weaver with one of her finished grass kunaa mats, Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.  The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka.  ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Maldives: A weaver with one of her finished grass kunaa mats, Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.

The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka. ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Maldives: Woman preparing grass in her home for weaving a kunaa mat, Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.  The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka.  ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Maldives: Woman preparing grass in her home for weaving a kunaa mat, Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.

The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka. ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Maldives: Woman preparing grass for weaving a kunaa mat, Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.  The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka.  ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Maldives: Woman preparing grass for weaving a kunaa mat, Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.

The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka. ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Maldives: A weaver stitching a fringe to a grass kunaa mat, Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.  The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka.  ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Maldives: A weaver stitching a fringe to a grass kunaa mat, Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.

The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka. ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Maldives: A fine grass kunaa mat from Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.  The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka.  ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Maldives: A fine grass kunaa mat from Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.

The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka. ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Maldives: A fine grass kunaa mat from Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.  The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka.  ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Maldives: A fine grass kunaa mat from Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.

The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka. ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Maldives: A fine grass kunaa mat from Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.  The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka.  ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Maldives: A fine grass kunaa mat from Gadhdhoo Island, Huvadhoo Atoll, 1980 - Kunaa weaving is an exclusively female occupation. The women of Gadu cross regularly to the neighbouring island of Gan where they harvest an especially resilient grass known as hau. This is then coloured with a variety of natural dyes before being woven into traditional designs on a simple loom.

The designs are traditional, handed down from mother to daughter from generation to generation. By the mid-17th century so prized had Gadu <i>kunaa</i> become in the neighbouring Indian Ocean region that they were sent as part of the annual tribute from the Maldivian Sultan to the Kingdom of Sri Lanka. ©Andrew Forbes/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Austria: Alexander von Humboldt (1769 - 1859), Prussian naturalist and explorer, Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), Vienna. Sculptor, Rudolf Wyr (1847 - 1915) - Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt was a Prussian geographer, naturalist, and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767–1835). Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography.  Between 1799 and 1804, Humboldt travelled extensively in Latin America, exploring and describing it for the first time from a modern scientific point of view. His description of the journey was written up and published in an enormous set of volumes over 21 years. He was one of the first to propose that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean were once joined (South America and Africa in particular).  Later, his five-volume work, Kosmos (1845), attempted to unify the various branches of scientific knowledge. Humboldt supported and worked with other scientists, including Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, Justus von Liebig, Louis Agassiz, Matthew Fontaine Maury, Georg von Neumayer, and most notably, Aimé Bonpland, with whom he conducted much of his scientific exploration.  ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Austria: Alexander von Humboldt (1769 - 1859), Prussian naturalist and explorer, Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), Vienna. Sculptor, Rudolf Wyr (1847 - 1915) - Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt was a Prussian geographer, naturalist, and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767–1835). Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography.

Between 1799 and 1804, Humboldt travelled extensively in Latin America, exploring and describing it for the first time from a modern scientific point of view. His description of the journey was written up and published in an enormous set of volumes over 21 years. He was one of the first to propose that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean were once joined (South America and Africa in particular).

Later, his five-volume work, Kosmos (1845), attempted to unify the various branches of scientific knowledge. Humboldt supported and worked with other scientists, including Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, Justus von Liebig, Louis Agassiz, Matthew Fontaine Maury, Georg von Neumayer, and most notably, Aimé Bonpland, with whom he conducted much of his scientific exploration. ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Austria: Abraham Gottlob Werner (1749 - 1817), German geologist, Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), Vienna. Sculptor, Kaspar Zumbusch (1830 - 1915) - Abraham Gottlob Werner (25 September 1749 – 30 June 1817) was a German geologist who set out an early theory about the stratification of the Earth's crust and propounded a history of the Earth that came to be known as Neptunism. While most tenets of Neptunism were eventually set aside, Werner is remembered for his demonstration of chronological succession in rocks; for the zeal with which he infused his pupils; and for the impulse he thereby gave to the study of geology. He has been called the 'father of German geology'.  ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Austria: Abraham Gottlob Werner (1749 - 1817), German geologist, Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), Vienna. Sculptor, Kaspar Zumbusch (1830 - 1915) - Abraham Gottlob Werner (25 September 1749 – 30 June 1817) was a German geologist who set out an early theory about the stratification of the Earth's crust and propounded a history of the Earth that came to be known as Neptunism. While most tenets of Neptunism were eventually set aside, Werner is remembered for his demonstration of chronological succession in rocks; for the zeal with which he infused his pupils; and for the impulse he thereby gave to the study of geology. He has been called the 'father of German geology'. ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Austria: Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779 – 1848), Swedish chemist, Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), Vienna. Sculptor, Rudolf Wyr (1847 - 1915) - Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), was a Swedish chemist. Berzelius is considered, along with Robert Boyle, John Dalton, and Antoine Lavoisier, to be one of the founders of modern chemistry.  Berzelius began his career as a physician but his researches in physical chemistry were of lasting significance in the development of the subject. He is especially noted for his determination of atomic weights; his experiments led to a more complete depiction of the principles of stoichiometry, or the field of chemical combining proportions. In 1803 Berzelius demonstrated the power of an electrochemical cell to decompose chemicals into pairs of electrically opposite constituents.  ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Austria: Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779 – 1848), Swedish chemist, Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), Vienna. Sculptor, Rudolf Wyr (1847 - 1915) - Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), was a Swedish chemist. Berzelius is considered, along with Robert Boyle, John Dalton, and Antoine Lavoisier, to be one of the founders of modern chemistry.

Berzelius began his career as a physician but his researches in physical chemistry were of lasting significance in the development of the subject. He is especially noted for his determination of atomic weights; his experiments led to a more complete depiction of the principles of stoichiometry, or the field of chemical combining proportions. In 1803 Berzelius demonstrated the power of an electrochemical cell to decompose chemicals into pairs of electrically opposite constituents. ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Austria: Carl Linnaeus (Carl von Linné, 1707-1778), Swedish botanist, physician, biologist, Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), Vienna. Sculptor, Viktor Tilgner (1844 - 1896) - Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who laid the foundations for the modern biological naming scheme of binomial nomenclature.  He is known as the father of modern taxonomy, and is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology.  ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Austria: Carl Linnaeus (Carl von Linné, 1707-1778), Swedish botanist, physician, biologist, Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), Vienna. Sculptor, Viktor Tilgner (1844 - 1896) - Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who laid the foundations for the modern biological naming scheme of binomial nomenclature.

He is known as the father of modern taxonomy, and is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology. ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Austria: Georges Cuvier (1769 - 1832), French naturalist and zoologist, Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), Vienna. Sculptor, Karl Kundmann (1838 - 1919) - Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the 'father of paleontology'.  Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils.  ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Austria: Georges Cuvier (1769 - 1832), French naturalist and zoologist, Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), Vienna. Sculptor, Karl Kundmann (1838 - 1919) - Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the 'father of paleontology'.

Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils. ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Nerva (30-98 CE), 12th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Born in 30 CE, Marcus Cocceius Nerva (30-98 CE) was a member of Italian nobility rather than Roman elite, though the Cocceii were still one of the most esteemed and influential political families of the late Republic and early Empire.  Nerva served much of his imperial service under Nero and the Flavian dynasty, and when Domitian was assassinated in 96 CE by a conspiracy of freedmen and Praetorian Guard, Nerva was declared emperor by the Roman senate. This marked the first time the Senate had ever elected an emperor. He was sixty-five when he became emperor, and one of his main goals was to restore liberties to the senate that had been curtailed during Domitian's autocratic rule.  Nerva's very brief reign was hindered by various problems, and a revolt in in 97 CE by the Praetorian Guard forced him to adopt an heir of their choosing, Trajan. Nerva died of natural causes after barely fifteen months in office, and was succeeded and deified by Trajan. He was known as a wise and moderate emperor, who ensured a peaceful transition of power after his death, and was the first of the 'Five Good Emperors'.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Nerva (30-98 CE), 12th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Born in 30 CE, Marcus Cocceius Nerva (30-98 CE) was a member of Italian nobility rather than Roman elite, though the Cocceii were still one of the most esteemed and influential political families of the late Republic and early Empire.

Nerva served much of his imperial service under Nero and the Flavian dynasty, and when Domitian was assassinated in 96 CE by a conspiracy of freedmen and Praetorian Guard, Nerva was declared emperor by the Roman senate. This marked the first time the Senate had ever elected an emperor. He was sixty-five when he became emperor, and one of his main goals was to restore liberties to the senate that had been curtailed during Domitian's autocratic rule.

Nerva's very brief reign was hindered by various problems, and a revolt in in 97 CE by the Praetorian Guard forced him to adopt an heir of their choosing, Trajan. Nerva died of natural causes after barely fifteen months in office, and was succeeded and deified by Trajan. He was known as a wise and moderate emperor, who ensured a peaceful transition of power after his death, and was the first of the 'Five Good Emperors'. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Austria: Aristotle (384 - 322 BCE), Greek philosopher, Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), Vienna. Sculptor, Karl Kundmann (1838 - 1919) - Aristotle (Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs) (384 BCE – 322 BCE) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.  His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theatre, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy.  Aristotle's writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics.  ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Austria: Aristotle (384 - 322 BCE), Greek philosopher, Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), Vienna. Sculptor, Karl Kundmann (1838 - 1919) - Aristotle (Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs) (384 BCE – 322 BCE) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.

His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theatre, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy.

Aristotle's writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics. ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Austria: Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), Vienna. Sculptor, Karl Kundmann (1838 - 1919) - Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.  During his career, Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz, Austria, where he became an associate of Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg. Later he became an assistant to astronomer Tycho Brahe, and eventually the imperial mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II and his two successors Matthias and Ferdinand II. He was also a mathematics teacher in Linz, Austria, and an adviser to General Wallenstein. Additionally, he did fundamental work in the field of optics, invented an improved version of the refracting telescope (the Keplerian Telescope), and mentioned the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei.  ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Austria: Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), Vienna. Sculptor, Karl Kundmann (1838 - 1919) - Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.

During his career, Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz, Austria, where he became an associate of Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg. Later he became an assistant to astronomer Tycho Brahe, and eventually the imperial mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II and his two successors Matthias and Ferdinand II. He was also a mathematics teacher in Linz, Austria, and an adviser to General Wallenstein. Additionally, he did fundamental work in the field of optics, invented an improved version of the refracting telescope (the Keplerian Telescope), and mentioned the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei. ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Austria: Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1726), English physicist and mathematician, Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), Vienna. Sculptor, Viktor Tilgner (1844 - 1896) - Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726) was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a 'natural philosopher') who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.  His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ('Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy'), first published in 1687, laid the foundations for classical mechanics. Newton made seminal contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of calculus.  ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Austria: Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1726), English physicist and mathematician, Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum), Vienna. Sculptor, Viktor Tilgner (1844 - 1896) - Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726) was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a 'natural philosopher') who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.

His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ('Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy'), first published in 1687, laid the foundations for classical mechanics. Newton made seminal contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of calculus. ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Vespasian (9-79), 9th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - From an equestrian family that rose to senatorial rank under the Julio-Claudian dyansty, Vespasianus - as he was then called - earned much renown through his military record. He first served during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 CE, and was later sent by Emperor Nero to conquer Judea in 66 CE, during the Jewish rebellion.  During his siege of Jerusalem, news came to him of Nero's suicide and the tumultuous civil war that happened afterwards, later known as the Year of the Four Emperors. When Vitellius became the third emperor in April 69, the Roman legions of Egypt and Judea declared Vespasian the new emperor. Marching to Rome, he defeated and executed Vitellius, becoming emperor and ending the Year of the Four Emperors.  He ruled the Roman empire for 10 years, building the Flavian Amphitheatre, known nowadays as the Roman Colosseum, as well as enacting various reforms to the empire. He died in 79 CE, and his son Titus became the next Roman emperor, starting the Flavian dynasty and making Vespasian the first emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Vespasian (9-79), 9th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - From an equestrian family that rose to senatorial rank under the Julio-Claudian dyansty, Vespasianus - as he was then called - earned much renown through his military record. He first served during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 CE, and was later sent by Emperor Nero to conquer Judea in 66 CE, during the Jewish rebellion.

During his siege of Jerusalem, news came to him of Nero's suicide and the tumultuous civil war that happened afterwards, later known as the Year of the Four Emperors. When Vitellius became the third emperor in April 69, the Roman legions of Egypt and Judea declared Vespasian the new emperor. Marching to Rome, he defeated and executed Vitellius, becoming emperor and ending the Year of the Four Emperors.

He ruled the Roman empire for 10 years, building the Flavian Amphitheatre, known nowadays as the Roman Colosseum, as well as enacting various reforms to the empire. He died in 79 CE, and his son Titus became the next Roman emperor, starting the Flavian dynasty and making Vespasian the first emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Titus (39-81 CE), 10th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Natural son and heir of Emperor Vespasian, Titus (39-81 CE) was a member of the Flavian dynasty, the first Roman emperor to succeed his own biological father. Titus, like his father, had earned much renown as a military commander, especially during the First Jewish-Roman war.  When his father left to claim the imperial throne after Nero's death, Titus was left behind to end the Jewish rebellion, which occurred in 70 CE with the siege and sacking of Jerusalem. The Arch of Titus was built in honour of his destruction of the city. He was also known for his controversial relationship with the Jewish queen Berenice.  Under his father, her served as prefect of the Praetorian Guard, and he was known as a good emperor after his accession. As emperor, he is most endearingly known for his completion of the Colosseum, started by his father, and his efforts in relieving the destruction caused by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE and a fire in Rome in 80 CE. Titus only served for two years before dying of a fever in 81 CE, and was deified by the Roman Senate before being succeeded by his younger brother, Domitian.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Titus (39-81 CE), 10th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Natural son and heir of Emperor Vespasian, Titus (39-81 CE) was a member of the Flavian dynasty, the first Roman emperor to succeed his own biological father. Titus, like his father, had earned much renown as a military commander, especially during the First Jewish-Roman war.

When his father left to claim the imperial throne after Nero's death, Titus was left behind to end the Jewish rebellion, which occurred in 70 CE with the siege and sacking of Jerusalem. The Arch of Titus was built in honour of his destruction of the city. He was also known for his controversial relationship with the Jewish queen Berenice.

Under his father, her served as prefect of the Praetorian Guard, and he was known as a good emperor after his accession. As emperor, he is most endearingly known for his completion of the Colosseum, started by his father, and his efforts in relieving the destruction caused by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE and a fire in Rome in 80 CE. Titus only served for two years before dying of a fever in 81 CE, and was deified by the Roman Senate before being succeeded by his younger brother, Domitian. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Icon of Nerva Caesar (30-98 CE), 12th Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm (Icons of Roman Emperors), Antwerp, c. 1645 - Born in 30 CE, Marcus Cocceius Nerva (30-98 CE) was a member of Italian nobility rather than Roman elite, though the Cocceii were still one of the most esteemed and influential political families of the late Republic and early Empire.  Nerva served much of his imperial service under Nero and the Flavian dynasty, and when Domitian was assassinated in 96 CE by a conspiracy of freedmen and Praetorian Guard, Nerva was declared emperor by the Roman senate. This marked the first time the Senate had ever elected an emperor. He was sixty-five when he became emperor, and one of his main goals was to restore liberties to the senate that had been curtailed during Domitian's autocratic rule.   Nerva's very brief reign was hindered by various problems, and a revolt in in 97 CE by the Praetorian Guard forced him to adopt an heir of their choosing, Trajan. Nerva died of natural causes after barely fifteen months in office, and was succeeded and deified by Trajan. He was known as a wise and moderate emperor, who ensured a peaceful transition of power after his death, and was the first of the 'Five Good Emperors'.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Icon of Nerva Caesar (30-98 CE), 12th Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm (Icons of Roman Emperors), Antwerp, c. 1645 - Born in 30 CE, Marcus Cocceius Nerva (30-98 CE) was a member of Italian nobility rather than Roman elite, though the Cocceii were still one of the most esteemed and influential political families of the late Republic and early Empire.

Nerva served much of his imperial service under Nero and the Flavian dynasty, and when Domitian was assassinated in 96 CE by a conspiracy of freedmen and Praetorian Guard, Nerva was declared emperor by the Roman senate. This marked the first time the Senate had ever elected an emperor. He was sixty-five when he became emperor, and one of his main goals was to restore liberties to the senate that had been curtailed during Domitian's autocratic rule.

Nerva's very brief reign was hindered by various problems, and a revolt in in 97 CE by the Praetorian Guard forced him to adopt an heir of their choosing, Trajan. Nerva died of natural causes after barely fifteen months in office, and was succeeded and deified by Trajan. He was known as a wise and moderate emperor, who ensured a peaceful transition of power after his death, and was the first of the 'Five Good Emperors'. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Thailand: Lionfish (Pterois) found in the waters of the Andaman Sea - Ko Tarutao Marine National Park consists of 51 islands in two main groups scattered across the Andaman Sea in southernmost Thailand. Just seven of the islands are of any size, including Ko Tarutao in the east, and Ko Adang-Ko Rawi to the west. Just 5 miles (8km) to the south lies the marine frontier with Malaysia’s celebrated Langkawi Archipelago.  Tarutao is world-famous for its pristine diving sites, rich marine life and outstanding natural beauty. Covering a broad area of 575 sq miles (1490 sq km), Tarutao became Thailand’s second national marine park in 1974. Because of the location of the islands so far out to sea, the park is only safely accessible during the northeast monsoon between November and April.  ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Thailand: Lionfish (Pterois) found in the waters of the Andaman Sea - Ko Tarutao Marine National Park consists of 51 islands in two main groups scattered across the Andaman Sea in southernmost Thailand. Just seven of the islands are of any size, including Ko Tarutao in the east, and Ko Adang-Ko Rawi to the west. Just 5 miles (8km) to the south lies the marine frontier with Malaysia’s celebrated Langkawi Archipelago.

Tarutao is world-famous for its pristine diving sites, rich marine life and outstanding natural beauty. Covering a broad area of 575 sq miles (1490 sq km), Tarutao became Thailand’s second national marine park in 1974. Because of the location of the islands so far out to sea, the park is only safely accessible during the northeast monsoon between November and April. ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works

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