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France: World War I. Couple of 'Poilus' taking out their lice in the Trench. Inscription: 'Lice and Krauts, both vermin difficult to get rid of'. Postcard  ©Photo12 - Elk-Opid / The Image Works -
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France: World War I. Couple of 'Poilus' taking out their lice in the Trench. Inscription: 'Lice and Krauts, both vermin difficult to get rid of'. Postcard ©Photo12 - Elk-Opid / The Image Works -
Midnight: A man in a beret  waits next to some traffic  lights on the Euston Road,  London, in this atmospheric  photograph.  Date: 1930s  ©Mary Evans / The Image Works
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Midnight: A man in a beret waits next to some traffic lights on the Euston Road, London, in this atmospheric photograph. Date: 1930s ©Mary Evans / The Image Works
A woman goes off to work in  the early morning sunshine, at  atmospheric scene in Church  Street, Blackburn,  Lanacashire, England. Date: 1950s  ©Mary Evans / The Image Works
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A woman goes off to work in the early morning sunshine, at atmospheric scene in Church Street, Blackburn, Lanacashire, England. Date: 1950s ©Mary Evans / The Image Works
Three men walk towards the  Brandenburg Gate on a foggy  day. Date: 1950s ©Mary Evans / The Image Works
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Three men walk towards the Brandenburg Gate on a foggy day. Date: 1950s
©Mary Evans / The Image Works
18th Century European Jewish family, prepare to celebrate the beginning of the Sabbath c1868. ©World History Archive / TopFoto / The Image Works
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18th Century European Jewish family, prepare to celebrate the beginning of the Sabbath c1868.
©World History Archive / TopFoto / The Image Works
Sabbath in Galicia. Jew in prayer in front of layed table. Photograph, about 1900.  ©IMAGNO / Sammlung Hubmann / The Image Works
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Sabbath in Galicia. Jew in prayer in front of layed table. Photograph, about 1900. ©IMAGNO / Sammlung Hubmann / The Image Works
Sabbath in Galicia: Jew sitting at a dining table. Photograph around 1900.  ©IMAGNO / Sammlung Hubmann / The Image Works
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Sabbath in Galicia: Jew sitting at a dining table. Photograph around 1900. ©IMAGNO / Sammlung Hubmann / The Image Works
Philibert Louis Debucourt (1755-1832). Gilbert du Motier (1757-1834), Marquis de Lafayette, commander-in-chief of the Paris national guard. Engraving. Paris, Musée Carnavalet.  © Musée Carnavalet / Roger-Viollet / The Image Works
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Philibert Louis Debucourt (1755-1832). Gilbert du Motier (1757-1834), Marquis de Lafayette, commander-in-chief of the Paris national guard. Engraving. Paris, Musée Carnavalet. © Musée Carnavalet / Roger-Viollet / The Image Works
James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. (born  1924) 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.   Governor of Georgia 1971-1975. Head-and-shoulders portrait with stars-and-stripes in background. American Politician Democrat. ©World History Archive / TopFoto / The Image Works
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James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. (born 1924) 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981. Governor of Georgia 1971-1975. Head-and-shoulders portrait with stars-and-stripes in background. American Politician Democrat. ©World History Archive / TopFoto / The Image Works
Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de La Fayette 6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), often known as simply Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer born in Chavaniac, in the province of Auvergne in south central France. Lafayette was a general in the American Revolutionary War and a leader of the Garde nationale during the French Revolution. Marquis de Lafayette. Portrait by Charles Wilson Peale. 1779-80.  ©World History Archive / TopFoto / The Image Works
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Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de La Fayette 6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), often known as simply Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer born in Chavaniac, in the province of Auvergne in south central France. Lafayette was a general in the American Revolutionary War and a leader of the Garde nationale during the French Revolution. Marquis de Lafayette. Portrait by Charles Wilson Peale. 1779-80. ©World History Archive / TopFoto / The Image Works
The Marquis de Lafayette. Painting, 1825 Peale, Rembrandt; 1778–1860. Oil on canvas, 87.6 × 69.5 cm. Inv. No. 21.19  New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. ©akg-images / The Image Works
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The Marquis de Lafayette. Painting, 1825
Peale, Rembrandt; 1778–1860.
Oil on canvas, 87.6 × 69.5 cm.
Inv. No. 21.19 New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
©akg-images / The Image Works
Portrait of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) an American Founding Father, President of the United States and author of the Declaration of Independence. Painted by Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) an American painter. Dated 19th Century.  ©World History Archive / TopFoto / The Image Works
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Portrait of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) an American Founding Father, President of the United States and author of the Declaration of Independence. Painted by Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) an American painter. Dated 19th Century. ©World History Archive / TopFoto / The Image Works
Eugene Field, American poet and journalist. Best known as a poet of  childhood, eg. Dutch Lullaby  and Little Boy Blue. (1850 - 1895).  ©Mary Evans Picture Library/EDWIN WALLACE / The Image Works
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Eugene Field, American poet and journalist. Best known as a poet of childhood, eg. Dutch Lullaby and Little Boy Blue. (1850 - 1895). ©Mary Evans Picture Library/EDWIN WALLACE / The Image Works
Zurich metropolitan police presenting robot Wheelbarrow, counterterrorism; 1977.  ©ullstein bild - RDB / Blick / The Image Works
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Zurich metropolitan police presenting robot Wheelbarrow, counterterrorism; 1977. ©ullstein bild - RDB / Blick / The Image Works
France: Detail of the recumbent statues of King Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and Anne of Brittany (1477-1514). Saint-Denis basilica. © Pierre Jahan/Roger-Viollet/ The Image Works
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France: Detail of the recumbent statues of King Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and Anne of Brittany (1477-1514). Saint-Denis basilica. © Pierre Jahan/Roger-Viollet/ The Image Works
A small village near Manila, in the midst of the luxuriant tropical vegetation. In the foreground, humble sheds and the typical huts on piles lined up along a road   1863-1875 ca.   Philippines  ©Alinari / The Image Works
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A small village near Manila, in the midst of the luxuriant tropical vegetation. In the foreground, humble sheds and the typical huts on piles lined up along a road 1863-1875 ca. Philippines ©Alinari / The Image Works
Adolf Eichmann and two members of Odessa ( German Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, Organization for Former SS Members ) on the boat to Argentina. 1950. ©TopFoto / The Image Works
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Adolf Eichmann and two members of Odessa ( German Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, Organization for Former SS Members ) on the boat to Argentina. 1950. ©TopFoto / The Image Works
Germany: Henry III (1016-1056), 17th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm, ex priscis numismatibus ad viuum delineatae, & breui narratione historica, 1645 - Henry III (1016-1056), also known as Henry the Black and Henry the Pious, was the eldest son of Emperor Conrad II and a member of the Salian Dynasty. He was elected and crowned as King of Germany in 1028, after his father became Holy Roman Emperor. In 1026, his father made him Duke of Bavaria.  Henry would also became Duke of Swabia and King of Burgundy ten years later in 1038, and when his father died in 1039, he became sole ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, though was not crowned as emperor until 1046.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: Henry III (1016-1056), 17th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm, ex priscis numismatibus ad viuum delineatae, & breui narratione historica, 1645 - Henry III (1016-1056), also known as Henry the Black and Henry the Pious, was the eldest son of Emperor Conrad II and a member of the Salian Dynasty. He was elected and crowned as King of Germany in 1028, after his father became Holy Roman Emperor. In 1026, his father made him Duke of Bavaria.

Henry would also became Duke of Swabia and King of Burgundy ten years later in 1038, and when his father died in 1039, he became sole ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, though was not crowned as emperor until 1046. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Martinian (-325), joint 58th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Martinian (-325), also known as Sextus Martinianus, was co-emperor with Licinius. Very little of his past his known aside from serving as a magister at Licinius' court. He was appointed to co-emperor in 324, when Licinius' civil war with Constantine I was at its height.  Martinian was sent with an army of Visigothic auxiliaries to prevent Constantine from entering Asia Minor, but was later recalled when Constantine's armies managed to bypass Martinian's forces. It was not known if Martinian managed to reinforce Licinius in time for his defeat at the Battle of Chrysopolis in 324.  Due to the intervention of Constantia, Licinius' wife and Constantine's sister, both Licinius and Martinian were initially spared, with Martinian being imprisoned in Cappadocia. Both Licinius and Martinian were executed a year later however, on the orders of Constantine.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Martinian (-325), joint 58th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Martinian (-325), also known as Sextus Martinianus, was co-emperor with Licinius. Very little of his past his known aside from serving as a magister at Licinius' court. He was appointed to co-emperor in 324, when Licinius' civil war with Constantine I was at its height.

Martinian was sent with an army of Visigothic auxiliaries to prevent Constantine from entering Asia Minor, but was later recalled when Constantine's armies managed to bypass Martinian's forces. It was not known if Martinian managed to reinforce Licinius in time for his defeat at the Battle of Chrysopolis in 324.

Due to the intervention of Constantia, Licinius' wife and Constantine's sister, both Licinius and Martinian were initially spared, with Martinian being imprisoned in Cappadocia. Both Licinius and Martinian were executed a year later however, on the orders of Constantine. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Henry III (1016-1056), 17th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Henry III (1016-1056), also known as Henry the Black and Henry the Pious, was the eldest son of Emperor Conrad II and a member of the Salian Dynasty. He was elected and crowned as King of Germany in 1028, after his father became Holy Roman Emperor. In 1026, his father made him Duke of Bavaria.  Henry would also became Duke of Swabia and King of Burgundy ten years later in 1038, and when his father died in 1039, he became sole ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, though was not crowned as emperor until 1046.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: Henry III (1016-1056), 17th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Henry III (1016-1056), also known as Henry the Black and Henry the Pious, was the eldest son of Emperor Conrad II and a member of the Salian Dynasty. He was elected and crowned as King of Germany in 1028, after his father became Holy Roman Emperor. In 1026, his father made him Duke of Bavaria.

Henry would also became Duke of Swabia and King of Burgundy ten years later in 1038, and when his father died in 1039, he became sole ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, though was not crowned as emperor until 1046. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Constantine the Great (272-337), 57th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Constantine I (272-337), also known as Constantine the Great and Saint Constantine, was the son of Emperor Constantius. His father sent him east to serve under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius, spending some time in the court of the latter. After his father died in 306, Constantine was proclaimed his successor and emperor by his army at Ebocarum (York).  He at first remained officially neutral in the efforts of Emperor Galerius to defeat the usurper Maxentius, but after Galerius' death, Constantine was eventually dragged into the conflict. He eventually defeated Maxentius in 312, and then fought against his erstwhile ally, Emperor Licinius, for sole control of both western and eastern portions of the Roman Empire. Licinius was defeated in 324, and Constantine became emperor of a united empire.  Constantine enacted many reforms strengthening the empire, ending the tetrarchy system and restructuring government. He became the first emperor to claim conversion to Christianity, and he called the First Council of Nicaea in 325, overseeing the profession of the Nicene Creed. He renamed Byzantium to Constantinople after himself, which would become the new capital. He died in 337 from sickness, and was succeeded by his sons.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Constantine the Great (272-337), 57th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Constantine I (272-337), also known as Constantine the Great and Saint Constantine, was the son of Emperor Constantius. His father sent him east to serve under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius, spending some time in the court of the latter. After his father died in 306, Constantine was proclaimed his successor and emperor by his army at Ebocarum (York).

He at first remained officially neutral in the efforts of Emperor Galerius to defeat the usurper Maxentius, but after Galerius' death, Constantine was eventually dragged into the conflict. He eventually defeated Maxentius in 312, and then fought against his erstwhile ally, Emperor Licinius, for sole control of both western and eastern portions of the Roman Empire. Licinius was defeated in 324, and Constantine became emperor of a united empire.

Constantine enacted many reforms strengthening the empire, ending the tetrarchy system and restructuring government. He became the first emperor to claim conversion to Christianity, and he called the First Council of Nicaea in 325, overseeing the profession of the Nicene Creed. He renamed Byzantium to Constantinople after himself, which would become the new capital. He died in 337 from sickness, and was succeeded by his sons. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Frederick I (1122-1190), 20th Holy Roman emperor, with his sons King Henry VI and Duke Frederick VI, from the Chronic of the Guelphs, c. 1179-1191, Weingarten Abbey, Weingarten - Frederick I (1122-1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the nephew of German king Conrad III, and became Duke of Swabia in 1147. When Conrad died in 1152, he named Frederick as his successor on his deathbed, rather than his own son, Frederick IV of Swabia. He was later crowned King of Italy and Holy Roman emperor in 1155, as well as being proclaimed King of Burgundy in 1178.  Frederick was given the name Barbarossa ('red beard') by the northern Italian cities he attempted to conquer, waging six campaigns in all to subsume Italy, struggling constantly with the various popes and interference from the Byzantine Empire. Frederick embarked on the Third Crusade in 1189, after his sixth and final Italian expedition ended in success, a massive campaign in conjunction with the French King Philip Augustus and the English King Richard the Lionheart.<br/   Before Frederick arrived in Jerusalem however, he drowned in the Saleph river in 1190, leaving the German army in a state of chaos and ultimately leading to the dissolution of the Crusader army. He was considered an exceptionally charismatic leader and one of the Holy Roman Empire's greatest mediaeval emperors, with his contributions including the reestablishment of the 'Corpus Juris Civilis' (Roman rule of law). His qualities were considered almost superhuman by some, his ambition, longevity, organisational skills, battlefield acumen and political perspicuity all adding to his reputation.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: Frederick I (1122-1190), 20th Holy Roman emperor, with his sons King Henry VI and Duke Frederick VI, from the Chronic of the Guelphs, c. 1179-1191, Weingarten Abbey, Weingarten - Frederick I (1122-1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the nephew of German king Conrad III, and became Duke of Swabia in 1147. When Conrad died in 1152, he named Frederick as his successor on his deathbed, rather than his own son, Frederick IV of Swabia. He was later crowned King of Italy and Holy Roman emperor in 1155, as well as being proclaimed King of Burgundy in 1178.

Frederick was given the name Barbarossa ('red beard') by the northern Italian cities he attempted to conquer, waging six campaigns in all to subsume Italy, struggling constantly with the various popes and interference from the Byzantine Empire. Frederick embarked on the Third Crusade in 1189, after his sixth and final Italian expedition ended in success, a massive campaign in conjunction with the French King Philip Augustus and the English King Richard the Lionheart.<br/

Before Frederick arrived in Jerusalem however, he drowned in the Saleph river in 1190, leaving the German army in a state of chaos and ultimately leading to the dissolution of the Crusader army. He was considered an exceptionally charismatic leader and one of the Holy Roman Empire's greatest mediaeval emperors, with his contributions including the reestablishment of the 'Corpus Juris Civilis' (Roman rule of law). His qualities were considered almost superhuman by some, his ambition, longevity, organisational skills, battlefield acumen and political perspicuity all adding to his reputation. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Carus (222-283), 48th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Marcus Numerius Carus (222-283) was born in Gaul but educated in Rome. A senator, he filled various civil and military posts before eventually being appointed prefect of the Praetorian Guard by Emperor Probus in 282.   Either right before or after Probus' assassination, Carus was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, with Probus' attempts to stop this usurpation leading to his murder by his own soldiers in late 282. Carus avenged the death of Probus by executing his killers, but he was suspected as having been an accessory to the deed. Carus' main achievement during his brief reign was waging a successful campaign against the Sassanid Empire, striking deep into Persian territory and making it all the way to the capital city of Ctesiphon.  Carus died in 283 before further conquest could be conducted however, with various reasons attributed to his death, from disease, to a war wound or being struck by lightning during a violent storm. He was naturally succeeded by his son Numerian without any conflict.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Carus (222-283), 48th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Marcus Numerius Carus (222-283) was born in Gaul but educated in Rome. A senator, he filled various civil and military posts before eventually being appointed prefect of the Praetorian Guard by Emperor Probus in 282.

Either right before or after Probus' assassination, Carus was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, with Probus' attempts to stop this usurpation leading to his murder by his own soldiers in late 282. Carus avenged the death of Probus by executing his killers, but he was suspected as having been an accessory to the deed. Carus' main achievement during his brief reign was waging a successful campaign against the Sassanid Empire, striking deep into Persian territory and making it all the way to the capital city of Ctesiphon.

Carus died in 283 before further conquest could be conducted however, with various reasons attributed to his death, from disease, to a war wound or being struck by lightning during a violent storm. He was naturally succeeded by his son Numerian without any conflict. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Crispus (299/305-326), Caesar of the Roman Empire, son of Constantine I, 57th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Crispus (299/305-326) was the first-born son and initial heir to Emperor Constantine I and his first wife Minervina. When his father had to eventually put aside Minervina to marry Fausta for political reasons, he did not dismiss his son but continued to care for him and would have named Crispus his heir.  Crispus was declared as Caesar in 317, a prince of the empire, and was made commander of Gaul. He led many victorious military campaigns against the Alamanni and Franks, securing the Roman presence in Gaul and Germania. He also fought alongside his brother against the hostile Emperor Licinius, building upon his already illustrious reputation with even more outstanding victories. Crispus was loved by many, almost as admired and revered as Constantine himself.  However, in a shocking turn of events Crispus was executed on the orders of his father in 326. It is unknown what truly was the cause for such action, but the execution of Fausta only a few months later has led many historians to link the two, whether it be a conspiracy against Crispus by Fausta to ensure her own sons became heirs or, less likely, that there had been an illegitimate love affair between the two that Constantine had discovered. Either way, Crispus was killed and his name never mentioned again, deleted from all official documents and monuments.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Crispus (299/305-326), Caesar of the Roman Empire, son of Constantine I, 57th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Crispus (299/305-326) was the first-born son and initial heir to Emperor Constantine I and his first wife Minervina. When his father had to eventually put aside Minervina to marry Fausta for political reasons, he did not dismiss his son but continued to care for him and would have named Crispus his heir.

Crispus was declared as Caesar in 317, a prince of the empire, and was made commander of Gaul. He led many victorious military campaigns against the Alamanni and Franks, securing the Roman presence in Gaul and Germania. He also fought alongside his brother against the hostile Emperor Licinius, building upon his already illustrious reputation with even more outstanding victories. Crispus was loved by many, almost as admired and revered as Constantine himself.

However, in a shocking turn of events Crispus was executed on the orders of his father in 326. It is unknown what truly was the cause for such action, but the execution of Fausta only a few months later has led many historians to link the two, whether it be a conspiracy against Crispus by Fausta to ensure her own sons became heirs or, less likely, that there had been an illegitimate love affair between the two that Constantine had discovered. Either way, Crispus was killed and his name never mentioned again, deleted from all official documents and monuments. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Albert II (1397-1439), King of Germany, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Albert II (1397-1439), also known as Albert of Germany and Albert the Magnanimous, was the son of Albert IV, Duke of Austria, succeeding his father at the age of seven in 1404, though he did not become the proper governor of Austria until 1411. Albert married Elisabeth of Luxembourg, heiress of Emperor Sigismund, in 1422.  Albert assisted his father-in-law during the Hussite Wars, and was in turn named as successor in 1423. When Sigismund died in 1437, Albert was crowned King of Hungary a year later. He was crowned King of Bohemia six months afterwards, though he did not obtain actual possession of the country, and was forced to wage war against the Bohemians and their Polish allies. The crown of Germany was given to him in 1438.  Albert died in 1439 while defending Hungary from a Turkish invasion, and despite his short reign was known for being an energetic and warlike prince. He was also known for his harsh treatment of Austria's Jewish community, imprisoning and forcibly converting them or expelling them from Austria. Albert sentenced many Jews to death, burning them at the stake in 1421, destroying their synagogue in Vienna and placing an 'eternal ban' on them.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: Albert II (1397-1439), King of Germany, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Albert II (1397-1439), also known as Albert of Germany and Albert the Magnanimous, was the son of Albert IV, Duke of Austria, succeeding his father at the age of seven in 1404, though he did not become the proper governor of Austria until 1411. Albert married Elisabeth of Luxembourg, heiress of Emperor Sigismund, in 1422.

Albert assisted his father-in-law during the Hussite Wars, and was in turn named as successor in 1423. When Sigismund died in 1437, Albert was crowned King of Hungary a year later. He was crowned King of Bohemia six months afterwards, though he did not obtain actual possession of the country, and was forced to wage war against the Bohemians and their Polish allies. The crown of Germany was given to him in 1438.

Albert died in 1439 while defending Hungary from a Turkish invasion, and despite his short reign was known for being an energetic and warlike prince. He was also known for his harsh treatment of Austria's Jewish community, imprisoning and forcibly converting them or expelling them from Austria. Albert sentenced many Jews to death, burning them at the stake in 1421, destroying their synagogue in Vienna and placing an 'eternal ban' on them. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works

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