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"Fine Art"

Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de La Fayette 6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), often known as simply Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer born in Chavaniac, in the province of Auvergne in south central France. Lafayette was a general in the American Revolutionary War and a leader of the Garde nationale during the French Revolution. Marquis de Lafayette. Portrait by Charles Wilson Peale. 1779-80.  ©World History Archive / TopFoto / The Image Works
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Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de La Fayette 6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), often known as simply Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer born in Chavaniac, in the province of Auvergne in south central France. Lafayette was a general in the American Revolutionary War and a leader of the Garde nationale during the French Revolution. Marquis de Lafayette. Portrait by Charles Wilson Peale. 1779-80. ©World History Archive / TopFoto / The Image Works
The Marquis de Lafayette. Painting, 1825 Peale, Rembrandt; 1778–1860. Oil on canvas, 87.6 × 69.5 cm. Inv. No. 21.19  New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. ©akg-images / The Image Works
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The Marquis de Lafayette. Painting, 1825
Peale, Rembrandt; 1778–1860.
Oil on canvas, 87.6 × 69.5 cm.
Inv. No. 21.19 New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
©akg-images / The Image Works
Portrait of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) an American Founding Father, President of the United States and author of the Declaration of Independence. Painted by Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) an American painter. Dated 19th Century.  ©World History Archive / TopFoto / The Image Works
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Portrait of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) an American Founding Father, President of the United States and author of the Declaration of Independence. Painted by Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) an American painter. Dated 19th Century. ©World History Archive / TopFoto / The Image Works
Spain: Medallion of Francisco de Zurbarán (c. 1598 – 1664), Spanish painter, Plaza de España (Spain Square), Seville - Francisco de Zurbarán (baptized November 7, 1598 – August 27, 1664) was a Spanish painter. He is known primarily for his religious paintings depicting monks, nuns, and martyrs, and for his still-lifes. Zurbarán gained the nickname Spanish Caravaggio, owing to the forceful, realistic use of chiaroscuro in which he excelled.  The Plaza de España is a plaza in the Parque de María Luisa (Maria Luisa Park), in Seville, Spain, built in 1928 for the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929. It is a landmark example of the Regionalism Architecture, mixing elements of the Renaissance Revival and Moorish Revival (Neo-Mudéjar) styles of Spanish architecture.  ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Spain: Medallion of Francisco de Zurbarán (c. 1598 – 1664), Spanish painter, Plaza de España (Spain Square), Seville - Francisco de Zurbarán (baptized November 7, 1598 – August 27, 1664) was a Spanish painter. He is known primarily for his religious paintings depicting monks, nuns, and martyrs, and for his still-lifes. Zurbarán gained the nickname Spanish Caravaggio, owing to the forceful, realistic use of chiaroscuro in which he excelled.

The Plaza de España is a plaza in the Parque de María Luisa (Maria Luisa Park), in Seville, Spain, built in 1928 for the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929. It is a landmark example of the Regionalism Architecture, mixing elements of the Renaissance Revival and Moorish Revival (Neo-Mudéjar) styles of Spanish architecture. ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Miniature of Frederick III (1415-1493), 28th Holy Roman emperor, from the Greiner market book, 1490 - Frederick III (1415-1493), also known as Frederick the Fat and Frederick the Peaceful, was the eldest son of the Inner Austrian duke Ernest the Iron, a member of the Habsburg dynasty. He became duke of Inner Austria in 1424 at the age of nine, but would not be awarded rule until 1435, with his younger brother Albert asserting his rights as co-ruler. By 1439, Frederick had become the undisputed head of the Habsburg dynasty.  Frederick died in 1493, aged 77, bleeding to death after having his infected left leg amputated.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: Miniature of Frederick III (1415-1493), 28th Holy Roman emperor, from the Greiner market book, 1490 - Frederick III (1415-1493), also known as Frederick the Fat and Frederick the Peaceful, was the eldest son of the Inner Austrian duke Ernest the Iron, a member of the Habsburg dynasty. He became duke of Inner Austria in 1424 at the age of nine, but would not be awarded rule until 1435, with his younger brother Albert asserting his rights as co-ruler. By 1439, Frederick had become the undisputed head of the Habsburg dynasty.

Frederick died in 1493, aged 77, bleeding to death after having his infected left leg amputated. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: 'King Albert Sends a Messenger to Pope Boniface for his Imperial Crown', watercolour painting from the workshop of Diebold Lauber (1427-1471), 1450 - Albert I (1255-1308), also known as Albert of Habsburg, was the eldest son of King Rudolf I, and was made landgrave of Swabia in 1273, looking over his father's possessions in Alsace. He was then made Duke of Austria and Styria in 1283, alongside his younger brother Rudolf II. When his father died without managing to secure Albert's election as successor, he was forced to recognise the sovereignty of the elected King Adolf of Nassau.  Albert did not abandon his hopes for the German crown however, biding his time and working with Adolf's enemies and former allies to eventually have him deposed in 1298, with Albert elected as king in his place. He fought and slew Adolf at the Battle of Gollheim when he refused to give up power.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: 'King Albert Sends a Messenger to Pope Boniface for his Imperial Crown', watercolour painting from the workshop of Diebold Lauber (1427-1471), 1450 - Albert I (1255-1308), also known as Albert of Habsburg, was the eldest son of King Rudolf I, and was made landgrave of Swabia in 1273, looking over his father's possessions in Alsace. He was then made Duke of Austria and Styria in 1283, alongside his younger brother Rudolf II. When his father died without managing to secure Albert's election as successor, he was forced to recognise the sovereignty of the elected King Adolf of Nassau.

Albert did not abandon his hopes for the German crown however, biding his time and working with Adolf's enemies and former allies to eventually have him deposed in 1298, with Albert elected as king in his place. He fought and slew Adolf at the Battle of Gollheim when he refused to give up power. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Watercolour painting of Henry V (1081 / 1086 - 1125), 19th Holy Roman emperor, visiting his father, Henry IV in prison, c. 1450 - Henry V (1081/1086-1125) was the son of Emperor Henry IV, and in 1099 was crowned King of Germany and his true successor in place of his older brother Conrad, who had rebelled against their father. Henry took an oath of non-interference in imperial matters while his father ruled, but he was persuaded by his father's enemies to revolt in 1104, forcing his father to abdicate in 1105 and making Henry sole ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: Watercolour painting of Henry V (1081 / 1086 - 1125), 19th Holy Roman emperor, visiting his father, Henry IV in prison, c. 1450 - Henry V (1081/1086-1125) was the son of Emperor Henry IV, and in 1099 was crowned King of Germany and his true successor in place of his older brother Conrad, who had rebelled against their father. Henry took an oath of non-interference in imperial matters while his father ruled, but he was persuaded by his father's enemies to revolt in 1104, forcing his father to abdicate in 1105 and making Henry sole ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: 'The Leg Amputation of Emperor Frederick III', painting, 1493, Albertina, Vienna - Frederick III (1415-1493), also known as Frederick the Fat and Frederick the Peaceful, was the eldest son of the Inner Austrian duke Ernest the Iron, a member of the Habsburg dynasty. He became duke of Inner Austria in 1424 at the age of nine, but would not be awarded rule until 1435, with his younger brother Albert asserting his rights as co-ruler. By 1439, Frederick had become the undisputed head of the Habsburg dynasty.  Frederick died in 1493, aged 77, bleeding to death after having his infected left leg amputated.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: 'The Leg Amputation of Emperor Frederick III', painting, 1493, Albertina, Vienna - Frederick III (1415-1493), also known as Frederick the Fat and Frederick the Peaceful, was the eldest son of the Inner Austrian duke Ernest the Iron, a member of the Habsburg dynasty. He became duke of Inner Austria in 1424 at the age of nine, but would not be awarded rule until 1435, with his younger brother Albert asserting his rights as co-ruler. By 1439, Frederick had become the undisputed head of the Habsburg dynasty.

Frederick died in 1493, aged 77, bleeding to death after having his infected left leg amputated. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
China: A modern wall painting of Zheng He (1371 - 1433 or 1435), Chinese explorer, admiral and diplomat, Kunyang (the explorer's birthplace), Yunnan Province (1990) - Zheng He (1371 – 1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty. He was born Ma He to a Muslim family, and later adopted the conferred surname Zheng from Emperor Yongle.  Zheng commanded expeditionary voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, Western Asia, and East Africa from 1405 to 1433. His larger ships stretched 120 meters or more in length. These carried hundreds of sailors on four tiers of decks.  ©Jim Goodman/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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China: A modern wall painting of Zheng He (1371 - 1433 or 1435), Chinese explorer, admiral and diplomat, Kunyang (the explorer's birthplace), Yunnan Province (1990) - Zheng He (1371 – 1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty. He was born Ma He to a Muslim family, and later adopted the conferred surname Zheng from Emperor Yongle.

Zheng commanded expeditionary voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, Western Asia, and East Africa from 1405 to 1433. His larger ships stretched 120 meters or more in length. These carried hundreds of sailors on four tiers of decks. ©Jim Goodman/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Japan: 'A Woman Shopping for Fine Kimono Cloth at the Drapers', Meiji Period woodblock print form the series 'Azuma Fuzoku Fuku Tsukushi' by Toyohara Chikanobu (1838-1912), late 19th century - Toyohara Chikanobu, better known to his contemporaries as Yōshū Chikanobu, was a prolific woodblock artist of Japan's Meiji period. His works capture the transition from the age of the samurai to Meiji modernity.  In 1875 (Meiji 8), he decided to try to make a living as an artist. He travelled to Tokyo. He found work as an artist for the Kaishin Shimbun. In addition, he produced nishiki-e artworks. In his younger days, he had studied the Kanō school of painting; but his interest was drawn to ukiyo-e.  Like many ukiyo-e artists, Chikanobu turned his attention towards a great variety of subjects. His work ranged from Japanese mythology to depictions of the battlefields of his lifetime to women's fashions. As well as a number of the other artists of this period, he too portrayed kabuki actors in character, and is well-known for his impressions of the <i>mie</i> (formal pose) of kabuki productions.  Chikanobu was known as a master of <i>bijinga</i>, images of beautiful women, and for illustrating changes in women's fashion, including both traditional and Western clothing. His work illustrated the changes in coiffures and make-up across time. For example, in Chikanobu's images in Mirror of Ages (1897), the hair styles of the Tenmei era, 1781-1789 are distinguished from those of the Keio era, 1865-1867.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Japan: 'A Woman Shopping for Fine Kimono Cloth at the Drapers', Meiji Period woodblock print form the series 'Azuma Fuzoku Fuku Tsukushi' by Toyohara Chikanobu (1838-1912), late 19th century - Toyohara Chikanobu, better known to his contemporaries as Yōshū Chikanobu, was a prolific woodblock artist of Japan's Meiji period. His works capture the transition from the age of the samurai to Meiji modernity.

In 1875 (Meiji 8), he decided to try to make a living as an artist. He travelled to Tokyo. He found work as an artist for the Kaishin Shimbun. In addition, he produced nishiki-e artworks. In his younger days, he had studied the Kanō school of painting; but his interest was drawn to ukiyo-e.

Like many ukiyo-e artists, Chikanobu turned his attention towards a great variety of subjects. His work ranged from Japanese mythology to depictions of the battlefields of his lifetime to women's fashions. As well as a number of the other artists of this period, he too portrayed kabuki actors in character, and is well-known for his impressions of the <i>mie</i> (formal pose) of kabuki productions.

Chikanobu was known as a master of <i>bijinga</i>, images of beautiful women, and for illustrating changes in women's fashion, including both traditional and Western clothing. His work illustrated the changes in coiffures and make-up across time. For example, in Chikanobu's images in Mirror of Ages (1897), the hair styles of the Tenmei era, 1781-1789 are distinguished from those of the Keio era, 1865-1867. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Japan: 'Yamato Takeru (c. 72-113) with bow', woodblock print by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1839-1892), late 19th century, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles - Yamato Takeru (c. 72-113), originally known as Prince Osu, was a legendary and mythical figure in Japan. He was a prince of the Yamato Dynasty, son of 12th emperor of Japan, Emperor Keiko. The life and death of Yamato are primarily chronicled in the tales 'Kojiki' (712 CE) and 'Nihon Shoki' (720 CE).  For slaying his elder brother, Osu was sent to fight in Izumo Province by his father, who feared his brutal temperament. Instead of being killed however, Osu succeeded in defeating his enemies and was gifted the title 'Yamato Takeru' (The Brave of Yamato). His father was not convinced, still fearing him and wishing his death.   Next, Yamato was sent eastwards to deal with those who had disobeyed the imperial court, armed with the holy sword 'Kusanagi'. During a great storm, his wife sacrificed herself to appease the sea god, and in his anger he defeated many enemies. However, his blaspheming of a local god of Mount Ibuki led to him being cursed and dying. His soul turned into a great white bird and flew away, his tomb located in Ise Province, known as the Mausoleum of the White Plover.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Japan: 'Yamato Takeru (c. 72-113) with bow', woodblock print by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1839-1892), late 19th century, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles - Yamato Takeru (c. 72-113), originally known as Prince Osu, was a legendary and mythical figure in Japan. He was a prince of the Yamato Dynasty, son of 12th emperor of Japan, Emperor Keiko. The life and death of Yamato are primarily chronicled in the tales 'Kojiki' (712 CE) and 'Nihon Shoki' (720 CE).

For slaying his elder brother, Osu was sent to fight in Izumo Province by his father, who feared his brutal temperament. Instead of being killed however, Osu succeeded in defeating his enemies and was gifted the title 'Yamato Takeru' (The Brave of Yamato). His father was not convinced, still fearing him and wishing his death.

Next, Yamato was sent eastwards to deal with those who had disobeyed the imperial court, armed with the holy sword 'Kusanagi'. During a great storm, his wife sacrificed herself to appease the sea god, and in his anger he defeated many enemies. However, his blaspheming of a local god of Mount Ibuki led to him being cursed and dying. His soul turned into a great white bird and flew away, his tomb located in Ise Province, known as the Mausoleum of the White Plover. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: A Roman fresco of Menander (c. 342/41 - c. 290 BCE), Greek dramatist and representative of Athenian New Comedy, Casa del Menandro (House of Menander), Pompeii - Menander (c. 342/41 – c. 290 BCE) wrote 108 comedies and took the prize at the Lenaia festival eight times. One of the most popular writers of antiquity, his work was lost during the Middle Ages and is known in modernity in highly fragmentary form, much of which was discovered in the 20th century. Only one play, Dyskolos, has survived almost entirely.  ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: A Roman fresco of Menander (c. 342/41 - c. 290 BCE), Greek dramatist and representative of Athenian New Comedy, Casa del Menandro (House of Menander), Pompeii - Menander (c. 342/41 – c. 290 BCE) wrote 108 comedies and took the prize at the Lenaia festival eight times. One of the most popular writers of antiquity, his work was lost during the Middle Ages and is known in modernity in highly fragmentary form, much of which was discovered in the 20th century. Only one play, Dyskolos, has survived almost entirely. ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Japan: 'Oiko Moving a Huge Rock to Affect Water Irrigation' from 'Biographies of Wise Women and Virtuous Wives', woodblock print by Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1798-1861), 1842, Tokyo Metropolitan Library, Tokyo - Utagawa Kuniyoshi (January 1, 1798 - April 14, 1861) was one of the last great masters of the Japanese ukiyo-e style of woodblock prints and painting. He is associated with the Utagawa school.  The range of Kuniyoshi's preferred subjects included many genres: landscapes, beautiful women, Kabuki actors, cats, and mythical animals. He is known for depictions of the battles of samurai and legendary heroes. His artwork was affected by Western influences in landscape painting and caricature.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Japan: 'Oiko Moving a Huge Rock to Affect Water Irrigation' from 'Biographies of Wise Women and Virtuous Wives', woodblock print by Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1798-1861), 1842, Tokyo Metropolitan Library, Tokyo - Utagawa Kuniyoshi (January 1, 1798 - April 14, 1861) was one of the last great masters of the Japanese ukiyo-e style of woodblock prints and painting. He is associated with the Utagawa school.

The range of Kuniyoshi's preferred subjects included many genres: landscapes, beautiful women, Kabuki actors, cats, and mythical animals. He is known for depictions of the battles of samurai and legendary heroes. His artwork was affected by Western influences in landscape painting and caricature. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Japan: A Meiji Period woodblock triptych depicting a collection of contemporary beautiful women, by Toyohara Chikanobu (1838-1912), 5 January 1890 - Toyohara Chikanobu, better known to his contemporaries as Yōshū Chikanobu, was a prolific woodblock artist of Japan's Meiji period. His works capture the transition from the age of the samurai to Meiji modernity.  In 1875 (Meiji 8), he decided to try to make a living as an artist. He travelled to Tokyo. He found work as an artist for the Kaishin Shimbun. In addition, he produced nishiki-e artworks. In his younger days, he had studied the Kanō school of painting; but his interest was drawn to ukiyo-e.  Like many ukiyo-e artists, Chikanobu turned his attention towards a great variety of subjects. His work ranged from Japanese mythology to depictions of the battlefields of his lifetime to women's fashions. As well as a number of the other artists of this period, he too portrayed kabuki actors in character, and is well-known for his impressions of the <i>mie</i> (formal pose) of kabuki productions.  Chikanobu was known as a master of <i>bijinga</i>, images of beautiful women, and for illustrating changes in women's fashion, including both traditional and Western clothing. His work illustrated the changes in coiffures and make-up across time. For example, in Chikanobu's images in Mirror of Ages (1897), the hair styles of the Tenmei era, 1781-1789 are distinguished from those of the Keio era, 1865-1867.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Japan: A Meiji Period woodblock triptych depicting a collection of contemporary beautiful women, by Toyohara Chikanobu (1838-1912), 5 January 1890 - Toyohara Chikanobu, better known to his contemporaries as Yōshū Chikanobu, was a prolific woodblock artist of Japan's Meiji period. His works capture the transition from the age of the samurai to Meiji modernity.

In 1875 (Meiji 8), he decided to try to make a living as an artist. He travelled to Tokyo. He found work as an artist for the Kaishin Shimbun. In addition, he produced nishiki-e artworks. In his younger days, he had studied the Kanō school of painting; but his interest was drawn to ukiyo-e.

Like many ukiyo-e artists, Chikanobu turned his attention towards a great variety of subjects. His work ranged from Japanese mythology to depictions of the battlefields of his lifetime to women's fashions. As well as a number of the other artists of this period, he too portrayed kabuki actors in character, and is well-known for his impressions of the <i>mie</i> (formal pose) of kabuki productions.

Chikanobu was known as a master of <i>bijinga</i>, images of beautiful women, and for illustrating changes in women's fashion, including both traditional and Western clothing. His work illustrated the changes in coiffures and make-up across time. For example, in Chikanobu's images in Mirror of Ages (1897), the hair styles of the Tenmei era, 1781-1789 are distinguished from those of the Keio era, 1865-1867. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Japan: 'The Tea Ceremony', a Meiji Period woodblock triptych by Toyohara Chikanobu (1838-1912), 3 March 1895 - Toyohara Chikanobu, better known to his contemporaries as Yōshū Chikanobu, was a prolific woodblock artist of Japan's Meiji period. His works capture the transition from the age of the samurai to Meiji modernity.  In 1875 (Meiji 8), he decided to try to make a living as an artist. He travelled to Tokyo. He found work as an artist for the Kaishin Shimbun. In addition, he produced nishiki-e artworks. In his younger days, he had studied the Kanō school of painting; but his interest was drawn to ukiyo-e.  Like many ukiyo-e artists, Chikanobu turned his attention towards a great variety of subjects. His work ranged from Japanese mythology to depictions of the battlefields of his lifetime to women's fashions. As well as a number of the other artists of this period, he too portrayed kabuki actors in character, and is well-known for his impressions of the <i>mie</i> (formal pose) of kabuki productions.  Chikanobu was known as a master of <i>bijinga</i>, images of beautiful women, and for illustrating changes in women's fashion, including both traditional and Western clothing. His work illustrated the changes in coiffures and make-up across time. For example, in Chikanobu's images in Mirror of Ages (1897), the hair styles of the Tenmei era, 1781-1789 are distinguished from those of the Keio era, 1865-1867.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Japan: 'The Tea Ceremony', a Meiji Period woodblock triptych by Toyohara Chikanobu (1838-1912), 3 March 1895 - Toyohara Chikanobu, better known to his contemporaries as Yōshū Chikanobu, was a prolific woodblock artist of Japan's Meiji period. His works capture the transition from the age of the samurai to Meiji modernity.

In 1875 (Meiji 8), he decided to try to make a living as an artist. He travelled to Tokyo. He found work as an artist for the Kaishin Shimbun. In addition, he produced nishiki-e artworks. In his younger days, he had studied the Kanō school of painting; but his interest was drawn to ukiyo-e.

Like many ukiyo-e artists, Chikanobu turned his attention towards a great variety of subjects. His work ranged from Japanese mythology to depictions of the battlefields of his lifetime to women's fashions. As well as a number of the other artists of this period, he too portrayed kabuki actors in character, and is well-known for his impressions of the <i>mie</i> (formal pose) of kabuki productions.

Chikanobu was known as a master of <i>bijinga</i>, images of beautiful women, and for illustrating changes in women's fashion, including both traditional and Western clothing. His work illustrated the changes in coiffures and make-up across time. For example, in Chikanobu's images in Mirror of Ages (1897), the hair styles of the Tenmei era, 1781-1789 are distinguished from those of the Keio era, 1865-1867. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Japan: 'People Digging Clams on the Beach', Meiji Period woodblock print by Toyohara Chikanobu (1838-1912), 1891 - Toyohara Chikanobu, better known to his contemporaries as Yōshū Chikanobu, was a prolific woodblock artist of Japan's Meiji period. His works capture the transition from the age of the samurai to Meiji modernity.  In 1875 (Meiji 8), he decided to try to make a living as an artist. He travelled to Tokyo. He found work as an artist for the Kaishin Shimbun. In addition, he produced nishiki-e artworks. In his younger days, he had studied the Kanō school of painting; but his interest was drawn to ukiyo-e.  Like many ukiyo-e artists, Chikanobu turned his attention towards a great variety of subjects. His work ranged from Japanese mythology to depictions of the battlefields of his lifetime to women's fashions. As well as a number of the other artists of this period, he too portrayed kabuki actors in character, and is well-known for his impressions of the <i>mie</i> (formal pose) of kabuki productions.  Chikanobu was known as a master of <i>bijinga</i>, images of beautiful women, and for illustrating changes in women's fashion, including both traditional and Western clothing. His work illustrated the changes in coiffures and make-up across time. For example, in Chikanobu's images in Mirror of Ages (1897), the hair styles of the Tenmei era, 1781-1789 are distinguished from those of the Keio era, 1865-1867.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Japan: 'People Digging Clams on the Beach', Meiji Period woodblock print by Toyohara Chikanobu (1838-1912), 1891 - Toyohara Chikanobu, better known to his contemporaries as Yōshū Chikanobu, was a prolific woodblock artist of Japan's Meiji period. His works capture the transition from the age of the samurai to Meiji modernity.

In 1875 (Meiji 8), he decided to try to make a living as an artist. He travelled to Tokyo. He found work as an artist for the Kaishin Shimbun. In addition, he produced nishiki-e artworks. In his younger days, he had studied the Kanō school of painting; but his interest was drawn to ukiyo-e.

Like many ukiyo-e artists, Chikanobu turned his attention towards a great variety of subjects. His work ranged from Japanese mythology to depictions of the battlefields of his lifetime to women's fashions. As well as a number of the other artists of this period, he too portrayed kabuki actors in character, and is well-known for his impressions of the <i>mie</i> (formal pose) of kabuki productions.

Chikanobu was known as a master of <i>bijinga</i>, images of beautiful women, and for illustrating changes in women's fashion, including both traditional and Western clothing. His work illustrated the changes in coiffures and make-up across time. For example, in Chikanobu's images in Mirror of Ages (1897), the hair styles of the Tenmei era, 1781-1789 are distinguished from those of the Keio era, 1865-1867. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Otto IV (1175-1218), 22nd Holy Roman emperor, painting by Johann Christian Ludwig Tunica (1795-1868), 1839, Royal House of Hanover, Hanover - Otto IV (1175-1218) was the third son of the rebellious Duke Henry the Lion, as well as being the nephew and foster son of King Richard Lionheart of England. He was born and raised in England by Richard, and therefore many consider him the first foreign king of Germany. When Emperor Henry VI died in 1197, some of the princes opposed to the Staufen dynasty elected Otto as anti-king in 1198.  Otto's election sparked a civil war between himself and Philip of Swabia, brother of Emperor Henry and true claimant to the crown of Germany. Otto's forces were initially victorious, but his situation eventually worsened and by 1207, Philip had all but won. His sudden murder a year later changed things considerably however, with Otto quickly becoming the recognised King of Germany, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor by 1209.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: Otto IV (1175-1218), 22nd Holy Roman emperor, painting by Johann Christian Ludwig Tunica (1795-1868), 1839, Royal House of Hanover, Hanover - Otto IV (1175-1218) was the third son of the rebellious Duke Henry the Lion, as well as being the nephew and foster son of King Richard Lionheart of England. He was born and raised in England by Richard, and therefore many consider him the first foreign king of Germany. When Emperor Henry VI died in 1197, some of the princes opposed to the Staufen dynasty elected Otto as anti-king in 1198.

Otto's election sparked a civil war between himself and Philip of Swabia, brother of Emperor Henry and true claimant to the crown of Germany. Otto's forces were initially victorious, but his situation eventually worsened and by 1207, Philip had all but won. His sudden murder a year later changed things considerably however, with Otto quickly becoming the recognised King of Germany, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor by 1209. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
China: Paintings of typical old Beijing scenes for sale in the old Liulichang area, Beijing - Liulichang is a district in Beijing known for a series of traditional Chinese stone houses selling various crafts, arts and antiques. It is one of Beijing's traditional old quarters.  ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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China: Paintings of typical old Beijing scenes for sale in the old Liulichang area, Beijing - Liulichang is a district in Beijing known for a series of traditional Chinese stone houses selling various crafts, arts and antiques. It is one of Beijing's traditional old quarters. ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Japan: 'Spring', watercolour painting by Shigeru Aoki (1882-1911), 1908, Ishibashi Museum of Art, Kurume - Shigeru Aoki (1882-1911) was a Japanese painter famed for his combining of Japanese mythology and legends with the Western-style art movement that could be found in some late 19th and early 20th century Japanese paintings.  Aoki was born into an ex-samurai household in northern Kyushu. He left his home in 1899 to pursue artistic studies in Tokyo, and soon began to accumulate critical acclaim for his artwork and its use of Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood techniques mixed with Kojiki themes. He died in March 1911 from tuberculosis, aged only 28.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Japan: 'Spring', watercolour painting by Shigeru Aoki (1882-1911), 1908, Ishibashi Museum of Art, Kurume - Shigeru Aoki (1882-1911) was a Japanese painter famed for his combining of Japanese mythology and legends with the Western-style art movement that could be found in some late 19th and early 20th century Japanese paintings.

Aoki was born into an ex-samurai household in northern Kyushu. He left his home in 1899 to pursue artistic studies in Tokyo, and soon began to accumulate critical acclaim for his artwork and its use of Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood techniques mixed with Kojiki themes. He died in March 1911 from tuberculosis, aged only 28. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Korea: Donggwoldo, a sixteen fold-screen silk painting of the Changdeok and Changgyeong Palaces or Eastern Palaces (1828 - 30), Dong-A University Museum, Busan - Construction of Changdeok Palace began in 1405, and was completed in 1412. The Palace was burnt to the ground during the Japanese invasion in 1592 and reconstructed in 1609 by King Seonjo and King Gwanghaegun. The palace was also attacked by the Manchu Qing but throughout its history of reconstruction and repair has remained faithful to its original design.  Changgyeong Palace was built in the mid-15th century by King Sejong for his father, Taejong. It was originally named 'Suganggung', but it was renovated and enlarged in 1483 by King Seongjong, at which time it received its current name.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Korea: Donggwoldo, a sixteen fold-screen silk painting of the Changdeok and Changgyeong Palaces or Eastern Palaces (1828 - 30), Dong-A University Museum, Busan - Construction of Changdeok Palace began in 1405, and was completed in 1412. The Palace was burnt to the ground during the Japanese invasion in 1592 and reconstructed in 1609 by King Seonjo and King Gwanghaegun. The palace was also attacked by the Manchu Qing but throughout its history of reconstruction and repair has remained faithful to its original design.

Changgyeong Palace was built in the mid-15th century by King Sejong for his father, Taejong. It was originally named 'Suganggung', but it was renovated and enlarged in 1483 by King Seongjong, at which time it received its current name. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Japan: 'Mt. Miyogi', watercolour painting by Shigeru Aoki (1882-1911), 1907 - Shigeru Aoki (1882-1911) was a Japanese painter famed for his combining of Japanese mythology and legends with the Western-style art movement that could be found in some late 19th and early 20th century Japanese paintings.  Aoki was born into an ex-samurai household in northern Kyushu. He left his home in 1899 to pursue artistic studies in Tokyo, and soon began to accumulate critical acclaim for his artwork and its use of Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood techniques mixed with Kojiki themes. He died in March 1911 from tuberculosis, aged only 28.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Japan: 'Mt. Miyogi', watercolour painting by Shigeru Aoki (1882-1911), 1907 - Shigeru Aoki (1882-1911) was a Japanese painter famed for his combining of Japanese mythology and legends with the Western-style art movement that could be found in some late 19th and early 20th century Japanese paintings.

Aoki was born into an ex-samurai household in northern Kyushu. He left his home in 1899 to pursue artistic studies in Tokyo, and soon began to accumulate critical acclaim for his artwork and its use of Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood techniques mixed with Kojiki themes. He died in March 1911 from tuberculosis, aged only 28. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Japan: 'Landscape in Chikugo', painting by Shigeru Aoki (1882-1911), 1908, Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo - Shigeru Aoki (1882-1911) was a Japanese painter famed for his combining of Japanese mythology and legends with the Western-style art movement that could be found in some late 19th and early 20th century Japanese paintings.  Aoki was born into an ex-samurai household in northern Kyushu. He left his home in 1899 to pursue artistic studies in Tokyo, and soon began to accumulate critical acclaim for his artwork and its use of Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood techniques mixed with Kojiki themes. He died in March 1911 from tuberculosis, aged only 28.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0035593.jpg
Japan: 'Landscape in Chikugo', painting by Shigeru Aoki (1882-1911), 1908, Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo - Shigeru Aoki (1882-1911) was a Japanese painter famed for his combining of Japanese mythology and legends with the Western-style art movement that could be found in some late 19th and early 20th century Japanese paintings.

Aoki was born into an ex-samurai household in northern Kyushu. He left his home in 1899 to pursue artistic studies in Tokyo, and soon began to accumulate critical acclaim for his artwork and its use of Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood techniques mixed with Kojiki themes. He died in March 1911 from tuberculosis, aged only 28. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Saint Mark enthroned and saints John the Baptist, Jerome, Peter and Nicholas (1474), by Bartolomeo Vivarini (c. 1432 - c. 1499), Chapel of San Marco, Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice - The Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, usually just called the Frari, is a church located in the Campo dei Frari at the heart of the San Polo district of Venice, Italy.  In 1231, under Doge Jacopo Tiepolo, the city donated land at this site to establish a monastery and church belonging to the Franciscan Order of Friars Minor. This edifice proved too small and a three nave church was begun in 1250, and not completed until 1338. Work almost immediately began on its much larger replacement, the current church, which took over a century to build.  ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Saint Mark enthroned and saints John the Baptist, Jerome, Peter and Nicholas (1474), by Bartolomeo Vivarini (c. 1432 - c. 1499), Chapel of San Marco, Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice - The Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, usually just called the Frari, is a church located in the Campo dei Frari at the heart of the San Polo district of Venice, Italy.

In 1231, under Doge Jacopo Tiepolo, the city donated land at this site to establish a monastery and church belonging to the Franciscan Order of Friars Minor. This edifice proved too small and a three nave church was begun in 1250, and not completed until 1338. Work almost immediately began on its much larger replacement, the current church, which took over a century to build. ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Saint Mark enthroned and saints John the Baptist, Jerome, Peter and Nicholas (1474), by Bartolomeo Vivarini (c. 1432 - c. 1499), Chapel of San Marco, Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice - The Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, usually just called the Frari, is a church located in the Campo dei Frari at the heart of the San Polo district of Venice, Italy.  In 1231, under Doge Jacopo Tiepolo, the city donated land at this site to establish a monastery and church belonging to the Franciscan Order of Friars Minor. This edifice proved too small and a three nave church was begun in 1250, and not completed until 1338. Work almost immediately began on its much larger replacement, the current church, which took over a century to build.  ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0035584.jpg
Italy: Saint Mark enthroned and saints John the Baptist, Jerome, Peter and Nicholas (1474), by Bartolomeo Vivarini (c. 1432 - c. 1499), Chapel of San Marco, Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice - The Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, usually just called the Frari, is a church located in the Campo dei Frari at the heart of the San Polo district of Venice, Italy.

In 1231, under Doge Jacopo Tiepolo, the city donated land at this site to establish a monastery and church belonging to the Franciscan Order of Friars Minor. This edifice proved too small and a three nave church was begun in 1250, and not completed until 1338. Work almost immediately began on its much larger replacement, the current church, which took over a century to build. ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: 'Apotheosis of St Ambrose' (1503) by Alvise Vivarini (c. 1442 - 1503), Cappella dei Milanesi (Chapel of the Milanese), Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice - The Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, usually just called the Frari, is a church located in the Campo dei Frari at the heart of the San Polo district of Venice, Italy.  In 1231, under Doge Jacopo Tiepolo, the city donated land at this site to establish a monastery and church belonging to the Franciscan Order of Friars Minor. This edifice proved too small and a three nave church was begun in 1250, and not completed until 1338. Work almost immediately began on its much larger replacement, the current church, which took over a century to build.  ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: 'Apotheosis of St Ambrose' (1503) by Alvise Vivarini (c. 1442 - 1503), Cappella dei Milanesi (Chapel of the Milanese), Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice - The Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, usually just called the Frari, is a church located in the Campo dei Frari at the heart of the San Polo district of Venice, Italy.

In 1231, under Doge Jacopo Tiepolo, the city donated land at this site to establish a monastery and church belonging to the Franciscan Order of Friars Minor. This edifice proved too small and a three nave church was begun in 1250, and not completed until 1338. Work almost immediately began on its much larger replacement, the current church, which took over a century to build. ©David Henley/Pictures From History/ The Image Works

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