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"Illustration"

"Le Temps passé, les plus utiles étaient foulés aux pieds : Taille, impôts, corvées".  "Time past, the most useful were trampled: Size, taxes, chores". Engraving. Paris, musée Carnavalet. © Musée Carnavalet / Roger-Viollet / The Image Works
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"Le Temps passé, les plus utiles étaient foulés aux pieds : Taille, impôts, corvées". "Time past, the most useful were trampled: Size, taxes, chores". Engraving. Paris, musée Carnavalet. © Musée Carnavalet / Roger-Viollet / The Image Works
Attributed to Jacques Louis David (1748-1825). "Le Serment du Jeu de Paume, le 20 juin 1789". Oil on canvas. Paris, musée Carnavalet.  © Musée Carnavalet / Roger-Viollet / The Image Works
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Attributed to Jacques Louis David (1748-1825). "Le Serment du Jeu de Paume, le 20 juin 1789". Oil on canvas. Paris, musée Carnavalet. © Musée Carnavalet / Roger-Viollet / The Image Works
NEW YORK - THE VERRAZANO BRIDGE . 25 JANUARY 1961   ©TopFoto / The Image Works
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NEW YORK - THE VERRAZANO BRIDGE . 25 JANUARY 1961 ©TopFoto / The Image Works
The Harley Psalter. Illuminated 11th century manuscript. Written in Latin on vellum, probably produced at Christ Church, Canterbury.   ©The British Library Board / The Image Works
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The Harley Psalter. Illuminated 11th century manuscript. Written in Latin on vellum, probably produced at Christ Church, Canterbury. ©The British Library Board / The Image Works
Oranienburg, Brandenburg Germany: Architectural groundplan of Sachsenhausen concentration camp, Brandenburg, 1936 - KZ Sachsenhausen was officially established in 1936, mainly political opponents were detained.  ©SZ Photo / Scherl / The Image Works
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Oranienburg, Brandenburg Germany: Architectural groundplan of Sachsenhausen concentration camp, Brandenburg, 1936 - KZ Sachsenhausen was officially established in 1936, mainly political opponents were detained. ©SZ Photo / Scherl / The Image Works
'Self-Portrait', 1500, (1906). The painting is held by the Alte Pinakothek, Munich. From The Engravings of Albert Durer, by Lionel Cust. [Seeley and Co. Limited, London, 1906] ©Print Collector / Heritage / The Image Works Image contains a halftone screen
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'Self-Portrait', 1500, (1906). The painting is held by the Alte Pinakothek, Munich. From The Engravings of Albert Durer, by Lionel Cust. [Seeley and Co. Limited, London, 1906] ©Print Collector / Heritage / The Image Works
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View of a Jamaican sugar plantation 1841  ©World History Archive / TopFoto / The Image Works
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View of a Jamaican sugar plantation 1841 ©World History Archive / TopFoto / The Image Works
Three Mexicans encounter a mountain lion, and hope that their gun, backed by two daggers, will save them from its claws and jaw.1880  ©Mary Evans Picture Library / The Image Works
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Three Mexicans encounter a mountain lion, and hope that their gun, backed by two daggers, will save them from its claws and jaw.1880 ©Mary Evans Picture Library / The Image Works
Torture: “Das Sturzbad” - Water torture. Illustration illustrating the torture practices in American state prisons. Woodcut. From: Die Gartenlaube, Illustrirtes Familienblatt, Leipzig (E.Keil) 1859, Nr. 44. Colorized at a later time.  ©akg-images / The Image Works
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Torture: “Das Sturzbad” - Water torture. Illustration illustrating the torture practices in American state prisons. Woodcut. From: Die Gartenlaube, Illustrirtes Familienblatt, Leipzig (E.Keil) 1859, Nr. 44. Colorized at a later time. ©akg-images / The Image Works
Torture: “Das Sturzbad” - Water torture. Illustration illustrating the torture practices in American state prisons. Woodcut. From: Die Gartenlaube, Illustrirtes Familienblatt, Leipzig (E.Keil) 1859, Nr. 44.  ©akg-images / The Image Works
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Torture: “Das Sturzbad” - Water torture. Illustration illustrating the torture practices in American state prisons. Woodcut. From: Die Gartenlaube, Illustrirtes Familienblatt, Leipzig (E.Keil) 1859, Nr. 44. ©akg-images / The Image Works
AERIAL DOGFIGHT: A deadly game of life and  death is played out over  Europe as a Bristol flies  against Fokker D.VIIs       Date: 1918  ©Mary Evans Picture Library / The Image Works
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AERIAL DOGFIGHT: A deadly game of life and death is played out over Europe as a Bristol flies against Fokker D.VIIs Date: 1918 ©Mary Evans Picture Library / The Image Works
Manfred Freiherr von Richthofen, also known as the ' Red Baron ' in action over the Western Front in his Fokker Dr.1 Triplane. 1918. This is the aircraft in which he met his death on  21 April 1918     Date: 2017  ©Tim Brown Illustration Aviation / Mary Evans / The Image Works
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Manfred Freiherr von Richthofen, also known as the ' Red Baron ' in action over the Western Front in his Fokker Dr.1 Triplane. 1918. This is the aircraft in which he met his death on 21 April 1918 Date: 2017 ©Tim Brown Illustration Aviation / Mary Evans / The Image Works
The skies over Europe are  filled with warring aircraft;  Spads battle with Fokker  D.VIIs in a fight to the death       Date: 1918 ©Mary Evans Picture Library / The Image Works
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The skies over Europe are filled with warring aircraft; Spads battle with Fokker D.VIIs in a fight to the death Date: 1918 ©Mary Evans Picture Library / The Image Works
RED BARON DOGFIGHT - depiction of World War I fighter planes. suitable for modern illustration of historical event/imagined scenario.  ©D.R. Knock / TopFoto/ The Image Works
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RED BARON DOGFIGHT - depiction of World War I fighter planes. suitable for modern illustration of historical event/imagined scenario. ©D.R. Knock / TopFoto/ The Image Works
Manfred von Richthofen - Aviator, Germany - Painting - undated . c.1918 ©Zangl / ullstein bild / The Image Works
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Manfred von Richthofen - Aviator, Germany - Painting - undated . c.1918 ©Zangl / ullstein bild / The Image Works
Justus of Ghent, Joos van Wassenhove (1435-1480). Moses. 1470s. Detail of the Tables of the Law. Flemish art. Oil on wood. ITALY. Urbino. Ducal Palace.  ©BeBa/Iberfoto / The Image Works
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Justus of Ghent, Joos van Wassenhove (1435-1480). Moses. 1470s. Detail of the Tables of the Law. Flemish art. Oil on wood. ITALY. Urbino. Ducal Palace. ©BeBa/Iberfoto / The Image Works
Italy: Icon of Didius Julianus (133-137), 20th Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm (Icons of Roman Emperors), Antwerp, c. 1645 - Didius Julianus (133/137-193 CE) was raised by Domitia Lucilla, the mother of emperor Marcus Aurelius, and was groomed for public office and distinction. He served in the Roman army, and was raised to consulship alongside Pertinax in 175 CE for his successes against the Germanic tribes.  After the Praetorian Guard murdered Pertinax in March 193 CE, they put the imperial throne up for bidding, willing to sell it to whomever could pay the most. Julianus won the bidding war, and was declared as Caesar and emperor, with the Senate formalising the declaration under military threat. His controversial ascension immediately invoked widespread public anger and caused a civil war in protest, with multiple rival claimants to the throne rising up, causing the year to be known as the Year of the Five Emperors.  The Praetorian Guard had become an undisciplined and debauched lot by then, strangers to active military operations, and could not halt rival Septimius Severus' progress towards Rome, who was declared by all Italy as their rightful emperor. Eventually, Julianus was deserted by practically everyone of import, and he was executed after only nine weeks of rule.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Icon of Didius Julianus (133-137), 20th Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm (Icons of Roman Emperors), Antwerp, c. 1645 - Didius Julianus (133/137-193 CE) was raised by Domitia Lucilla, the mother of emperor Marcus Aurelius, and was groomed for public office and distinction. He served in the Roman army, and was raised to consulship alongside Pertinax in 175 CE for his successes against the Germanic tribes.

After the Praetorian Guard murdered Pertinax in March 193 CE, they put the imperial throne up for bidding, willing to sell it to whomever could pay the most. Julianus won the bidding war, and was declared as Caesar and emperor, with the Senate formalising the declaration under military threat. His controversial ascension immediately invoked widespread public anger and caused a civil war in protest, with multiple rival claimants to the throne rising up, causing the year to be known as the Year of the Five Emperors.

The Praetorian Guard had become an undisciplined and debauched lot by then, strangers to active military operations, and could not halt rival Septimius Severus' progress towards Rome, who was declared by all Italy as their rightful emperor. Eventually, Julianus was deserted by practically everyone of import, and he was executed after only nine weeks of rule. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Icon of Honorius (384-423), 71st Western Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm (Icons of Roman Emperors), Antwerp, c. 1645 - Honorius (384-423) was the second son of Emperor Theodosius I and younger brother to Eastern Emperor Arcadius. Honorius was made Augustus and co-ruler in 393 CE, aged 9. When his father died two years laters, Honorius was given the Western half of the Roman Empire, while Arcadius ruled the East. Young as he was, Honorius was mainly a figurehead for General Stilicho, who had been appointed his guardian and advisor by Theodosius before his death. Stilicho made Honorius marry his daughter Maria to strengthen their bonds.   Honorius' reign, which was weak and chaotic even by the standards of the rapidly declining Western Roman Empire, was marked by constant barbarian invasions and usurper uprisings. Stilicho defeated many of these threats and played an important role in holding the empire together, but the sudden execution of Stilicho on Honorius' orders in 408 CE paved the way for the empire's collapse, with many of Stilicho's troops defecting en masse to the banner of King Alaric I of the Visigoths.  Chaos and terror gripped the Western Roman Empire without Stilicho's guiding hand, entire swathes of the empire rising up in protest or lost. Rome itself had been sacked by Alaric in 410 CE, the first time in 800 years. Honorius died of edema in 423 CE without an heir, widely considered as one of the worst emperors in Roman history.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Icon of Honorius (384-423), 71st Western Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm (Icons of Roman Emperors), Antwerp, c. 1645 - Honorius (384-423) was the second son of Emperor Theodosius I and younger brother to Eastern Emperor Arcadius. Honorius was made Augustus and co-ruler in 393 CE, aged 9. When his father died two years laters, Honorius was given the Western half of the Roman Empire, while Arcadius ruled the East. Young as he was, Honorius was mainly a figurehead for General Stilicho, who had been appointed his guardian and advisor by Theodosius before his death. Stilicho made Honorius marry his daughter Maria to strengthen their bonds.

Honorius' reign, which was weak and chaotic even by the standards of the rapidly declining Western Roman Empire, was marked by constant barbarian invasions and usurper uprisings. Stilicho defeated many of these threats and played an important role in holding the empire together, but the sudden execution of Stilicho on Honorius' orders in 408 CE paved the way for the empire's collapse, with many of Stilicho's troops defecting en masse to the banner of King Alaric I of the Visigoths.

Chaos and terror gripped the Western Roman Empire without Stilicho's guiding hand, entire swathes of the empire rising up in protest or lost. Rome itself had been sacked by Alaric in 410 CE, the first time in 800 years. Honorius died of edema in 423 CE without an heir, widely considered as one of the worst emperors in Roman history. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Icon of Pupienus (165/170-238), joint 30th Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm (Icons of Roman Emperors), Antwerp, c. 1645 - Pupienus (165/170-238), also known as Pupienus Maximus, was a senator in the Roman Senate who had risen to power and influence through military success under the rule of the Severan dynasty. He served two terms as Consul, and became an important member of the Senate.  When Gordian I and his son were proclaimed Emperors in 238, the Senate immediately recognised them in defiance of Emperor Maximinus Thrax. Pupienus, an elderly man by then, was put on a committee to coordinate efforts to thwart Maximinus until the Gordians could arrive in Rome. The Gordians died less than a month after their declaration however, and the Senate became divided in how to act, ulltimately voting for Pupienus and Balbinus, another elderly senator, to be installed as co-emperors.  Some senators, and the people of Rome, had wanted Gordian III, grandson of Gordian I, to be declared emperor however, and civil unrest gripped the capital. It was not helped that Pupienus and Balbinus argued and quarrelled often, Balbinus constantly worrying that Pupienus was planning to supplant him. Only a few months into their rule, they were dragged naked through the streets by the Praetorian Guard, publicly humiliated, tortured and then executed.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Icon of Pupienus (165/170-238), joint 30th Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm (Icons of Roman Emperors), Antwerp, c. 1645 - Pupienus (165/170-238), also known as Pupienus Maximus, was a senator in the Roman Senate who had risen to power and influence through military success under the rule of the Severan dynasty. He served two terms as Consul, and became an important member of the Senate.

When Gordian I and his son were proclaimed Emperors in 238, the Senate immediately recognised them in defiance of Emperor Maximinus Thrax. Pupienus, an elderly man by then, was put on a committee to coordinate efforts to thwart Maximinus until the Gordians could arrive in Rome. The Gordians died less than a month after their declaration however, and the Senate became divided in how to act, ulltimately voting for Pupienus and Balbinus, another elderly senator, to be installed as co-emperors.

Some senators, and the people of Rome, had wanted Gordian III, grandson of Gordian I, to be declared emperor however, and civil unrest gripped the capital. It was not helped that Pupienus and Balbinus argued and quarrelled often, Balbinus constantly worrying that Pupienus was planning to supplant him. Only a few months into their rule, they were dragged naked through the streets by the Praetorian Guard, publicly humiliated, tortured and then executed. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Icon of Carinus (-285), 49th Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm (Icons of Roman Emperors), Antwerp, c. 1645 - Carinus (-285) was Emperor Carus' eldest son, and was appointed Caesar in the beginning of 283, made co-emperor of the western portion of the Roman Empire while his father and younger brother Numerian headest eastwards to fight the Sassanid Empire.  When his father died in mid-283, Carinus and Numerian became co-emperors of the Empire, with Carinus swiftly returning to Rome to celebrate his ascension. In 284, Numerian was found dead in his closed coach under mysterious circumstances, with Diocletian, commander of Numerian's bodyguards, claiming that Numerian had been assassinated. Diocletian was almost immediately proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, and Carinus was forced to march and face him.  The two armies clashed in 285, with differing accounts on what occurred. One acount claims that Carinus' forces were winning, but the emperor was assassinated by a jealous tribune whose wife Carinus had seduced. A more believable account claims that Diocletian's troops secured a complete victory, and Carinus' army deserted him, leading to either his death by murder or execution. Carinus posthumously gained a reputation as one of the Empire's worst emperors, a slandering possibly supported by newly crowned Diocletian himself.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Icon of Carinus (-285), 49th Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm (Icons of Roman Emperors), Antwerp, c. 1645 - Carinus (-285) was Emperor Carus' eldest son, and was appointed Caesar in the beginning of 283, made co-emperor of the western portion of the Roman Empire while his father and younger brother Numerian headest eastwards to fight the Sassanid Empire.

When his father died in mid-283, Carinus and Numerian became co-emperors of the Empire, with Carinus swiftly returning to Rome to celebrate his ascension. In 284, Numerian was found dead in his closed coach under mysterious circumstances, with Diocletian, commander of Numerian's bodyguards, claiming that Numerian had been assassinated. Diocletian was almost immediately proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, and Carinus was forced to march and face him.

The two armies clashed in 285, with differing accounts on what occurred. One acount claims that Carinus' forces were winning, but the emperor was assassinated by a jealous tribune whose wife Carinus had seduced. A more believable account claims that Diocletian's troops secured a complete victory, and Carinus' army deserted him, leading to either his death by murder or execution. Carinus posthumously gained a reputation as one of the Empire's worst emperors, a slandering possibly supported by newly crowned Diocletian himself. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Portrait of Theodosius I (347-395), 69th Roman emperor, from the book 'Das Welttheater' by C. Strahlheim, Frankfurt (1836) - Theodosius I (347-395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was born into a military family in Hispania. He served with his father until his execution in 374 CE, after which Theodosius retired to Hispania until he was given the position of co-emperor by Emperor Gratian after Emperor Valens' death in 378 CE.  Theodosius ruled the East Roman Empire, and after Gratian himself was killed in 383 CE, appointed his son Arcadius as his co-ruler in the east while briefly acknowledging the usurper Magnus Maximus before agreeing to a marriage with Emperor Valentinian II's sister Galla and defeating Maximus in battle. He then appointed his trusted general Arbogast to watch and effectively rule over the young Valentinian II in the west, making Theodosius de facto ruler of both West and East.   Arbogast eventually killed Valentinian II and placed Eugenius as his puppet emperor in the west in 392 CE, forcing Theodosius to march against him, giving his son Honorius the title of co-emperor in the West instead. Eugenius and Arbogast were defeated in 394 CE, the latter executed while the former committed suicide, leaving Theodosius as the last sole emperor to truly rule over both halves of the Roman Empire. He eventually died in 395 CE from severe edema, leaving his sons ruling each half of the empire.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Portrait of Theodosius I (347-395), 69th Roman emperor, from the book 'Das Welttheater' by C. Strahlheim, Frankfurt (1836) - Theodosius I (347-395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was born into a military family in Hispania. He served with his father until his execution in 374 CE, after which Theodosius retired to Hispania until he was given the position of co-emperor by Emperor Gratian after Emperor Valens' death in 378 CE.

Theodosius ruled the East Roman Empire, and after Gratian himself was killed in 383 CE, appointed his son Arcadius as his co-ruler in the east while briefly acknowledging the usurper Magnus Maximus before agreeing to a marriage with Emperor Valentinian II's sister Galla and defeating Maximus in battle. He then appointed his trusted general Arbogast to watch and effectively rule over the young Valentinian II in the west, making Theodosius de facto ruler of both West and East.

Arbogast eventually killed Valentinian II and placed Eugenius as his puppet emperor in the west in 392 CE, forcing Theodosius to march against him, giving his son Honorius the title of co-emperor in the West instead. Eugenius and Arbogast were defeated in 394 CE, the latter executed while the former committed suicide, leaving Theodosius as the last sole emperor to truly rule over both halves of the Roman Empire. He eventually died in 395 CE from severe edema, leaving his sons ruling each half of the empire. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Illustration of Licinius (263-325), 58th Roman emperor, by Hubert Goltzius (1526-1583), c. 1557 - Licinius (263-325 CE) was born to a peasant family and was a close childhood friend of future emperor Galerius, becoming a close confidante to Galerius and entrusted with the eastern provinces when Galerius went to deal with the usurper Maxentius. Galerius elevated Licinius to co-emperor, Augustus in the West, in 308, though he personally had control over the eastern provinces.  After emperors Maxentius and Maximinus II formed an alliance, Licinius was forced to enter into a formal agreement with Constantine I, marrying his half-sister Flavia Julia Constantia. He fought against Maximinus' forces and finally killed him in 313, while Constantine had defeated Maxentius in 312.  The two divided the Roman Empire between them, but civil war soon erupted a year later in 314. The two emperors would constantly war against each other, then make peace before restarting conflict again for the next few years. Licinius was finally defeated for good in 324, with only the pleas of his wife, Constantine's sister, saving him. Licinius was then hanged a year later in 325, accused by Constantine of conspiring to stir revolt among the barbarians.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Illustration of Licinius (263-325), 58th Roman emperor, by Hubert Goltzius (1526-1583), c. 1557 - Licinius (263-325 CE) was born to a peasant family and was a close childhood friend of future emperor Galerius, becoming a close confidante to Galerius and entrusted with the eastern provinces when Galerius went to deal with the usurper Maxentius. Galerius elevated Licinius to co-emperor, Augustus in the West, in 308, though he personally had control over the eastern provinces.

After emperors Maxentius and Maximinus II formed an alliance, Licinius was forced to enter into a formal agreement with Constantine I, marrying his half-sister Flavia Julia Constantia. He fought against Maximinus' forces and finally killed him in 313, while Constantine had defeated Maxentius in 312.

The two divided the Roman Empire between them, but civil war soon erupted a year later in 314. The two emperors would constantly war against each other, then make peace before restarting conflict again for the next few years. Licinius was finally defeated for good in 324, with only the pleas of his wife, Constantine's sister, saving him. Licinius was then hanged a year later in 325, accused by Constantine of conspiring to stir revolt among the barbarians. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: 'The Roman Emperor Valens (328-378) Pours Money into a Coffer; an Officer is Arrested and led to Prison', etching by Christoph Murer (1558-1614), early 17th century - Valens (328-378) was the brother of Valentinian, and lived in his brother's shadow for many years. When his brother was appointed emperor in 364 CE, he chose Valens to serve as co-emperor, obtaining the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire. Valens made Constantinople his capital.  Valens was soon presented with a usurper named Procopius in 365, a surviving relative of Emperor Julian who proclaimed himself emperor in Constantinople while Valens was away. He managed to defeat Procopius in the spring of 366, executing the usurper. He then warred against the revolting Goths, before heading back east to face the Sassanid Empire. A resurgent Gothic presence, alongside Huns and Alans, led to the commencement of the Gothic War, after an attempted resettlement of Goths had resulted in them revolting in 377.  Rather than wait for his nephew and co-emperor Gratian to arrive with reinforcements as advised by many, Valens marched out on his own. Valens was struck down during the decisive but avoidable Battle of Adrianople. He was known by some as the 'Last True Roman', and the battle that resulted in his death was considered the beginning of the collapse of the decaying Western Roman Empire.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: 'The Roman Emperor Valens (328-378) Pours Money into a Coffer; an Officer is Arrested and led to Prison', etching by Christoph Murer (1558-1614), early 17th century - Valens (328-378) was the brother of Valentinian, and lived in his brother's shadow for many years. When his brother was appointed emperor in 364 CE, he chose Valens to serve as co-emperor, obtaining the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire. Valens made Constantinople his capital.

Valens was soon presented with a usurper named Procopius in 365, a surviving relative of Emperor Julian who proclaimed himself emperor in Constantinople while Valens was away. He managed to defeat Procopius in the spring of 366, executing the usurper. He then warred against the revolting Goths, before heading back east to face the Sassanid Empire. A resurgent Gothic presence, alongside Huns and Alans, led to the commencement of the Gothic War, after an attempted resettlement of Goths had resulted in them revolting in 377.

Rather than wait for his nephew and co-emperor Gratian to arrive with reinforcements as advised by many, Valens marched out on his own. Valens was struck down during the decisive but avoidable Battle of Adrianople. He was known by some as the 'Last True Roman', and the battle that resulted in his death was considered the beginning of the collapse of the decaying Western Roman Empire. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
France: Portrait of Voltaire (1694-1778), French philosopher and writer, engraving by Jean-Michel Moreau (1741-1814), 1846 - Francois-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 - 30 May 1778), more commonly known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment historian, philosopher and writer. He was famous for his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state, often attacking the Catholic Church through his wit and writings.  Voltaire was a prolific and versatile writer, with more than 20,000 letters and over 2,000 books and pamphlets to his name, as well as plays, poems, essays and historical and scientific works. Despite the strict censorship laws of the time, Voltaire often spoke up in favour of civil liberties, and regularly used satire to criticise intolerance, religious dogma and other pillars of French institutions of his day.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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France: Portrait of Voltaire (1694-1778), French philosopher and writer, engraving by Jean-Michel Moreau (1741-1814), 1846 - Francois-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 - 30 May 1778), more commonly known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment historian, philosopher and writer. He was famous for his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state, often attacking the Catholic Church through his wit and writings.

Voltaire was a prolific and versatile writer, with more than 20,000 letters and over 2,000 books and pamphlets to his name, as well as plays, poems, essays and historical and scientific works. Despite the strict censorship laws of the time, Voltaire often spoke up in favour of civil liberties, and regularly used satire to criticise intolerance, religious dogma and other pillars of French institutions of his day. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Icon of Maximian (250-310), 52nd Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm (Icons of Roman Emperors), Antwerp, c. 1645 - Maximian (250-310) was born in the province of Pannonia to a family of shopkeepers, and joined the army as soon as he could, serving alongside future co-emperor Diocletian under emperors Aurelian, Probus and Carus. After Diocletian became emperor in 284, Maximian was soon appointed co-emperor in 286, matching Maximian's military brawn with Diocletian's political brain.  Maximian spent most of his time on campaign, fighting against the Germanic tribes along the Rhine frontier and in Gaul. When the man Maximian had appointed to govern the Channel shores, Carausius, rebelled in 286 and seceeded Britain and northwestern Gaul from the Roman Empire, Maximian tried but failed to oust Carausius. The rebellion was eventually crushed in 296, and Maximian moved south to fight pirates near Hispania.  He eventually returned to Italy in 298, living in comfort until he abdicated in 305 alongside Diocletian, handing power to the other two co-emperors of the Tetrachy, Constantius and Galerius, and retiring to southern Italy. Maximian returned to power in 306 when he aided his son Maxentius' rebellion. He later tried to depose his son but failed, fleeing to the court of Constantius' successor, Constantine. He was forced to renounce his title by Diocletian and Galerius, and he committed suicide in 310 after a failed attempt to usurp Constantine's title.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Icon of Maximian (250-310), 52nd Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm (Icons of Roman Emperors), Antwerp, c. 1645 - Maximian (250-310) was born in the province of Pannonia to a family of shopkeepers, and joined the army as soon as he could, serving alongside future co-emperor Diocletian under emperors Aurelian, Probus and Carus. After Diocletian became emperor in 284, Maximian was soon appointed co-emperor in 286, matching Maximian's military brawn with Diocletian's political brain.

Maximian spent most of his time on campaign, fighting against the Germanic tribes along the Rhine frontier and in Gaul. When the man Maximian had appointed to govern the Channel shores, Carausius, rebelled in 286 and seceeded Britain and northwestern Gaul from the Roman Empire, Maximian tried but failed to oust Carausius. The rebellion was eventually crushed in 296, and Maximian moved south to fight pirates near Hispania.

He eventually returned to Italy in 298, living in comfort until he abdicated in 305 alongside Diocletian, handing power to the other two co-emperors of the Tetrachy, Constantius and Galerius, and retiring to southern Italy. Maximian returned to power in 306 when he aided his son Maxentius' rebellion. He later tried to depose his son but failed, fleeing to the court of Constantius' successor, Constantine. He was forced to renounce his title by Diocletian and Galerius, and he committed suicide in 310 after a failed attempt to usurp Constantine's title. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works

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