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"Illustration"

Paris, france: 1820. The Tuileries palace and the Royal bridge.  © ND / Roger-Viollet / The Image Works
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Paris, france: 1820. The Tuileries palace and the Royal bridge. © ND / Roger-Viollet / The Image Works
Paris, France: Marks. "The ruins of Paris / 6 / Demolition of the column Vendome, under the Commune on May 18, 1871". Etching in color. 1871-1871. Paris, Carnavalet museum. Marks. "The ruins of Paris / 6 / Demolition of the column Vendome, under the Commune on May 18, 1871". Etching in color. 1871-1871. Paris, Carnavalet museum.
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Paris, France: Marks. "The ruins of Paris / 6 / Demolition of the column Vendome, under the Commune on May 18, 1871". Etching in color. 1871-1871. Paris, Carnavalet museum. Marks. "The ruins of Paris / 6 / Demolition of the column Vendome, under the Commune on May 18, 1871". Etching in color. 1871-1871. Paris, Carnavalet museum.
Asia: A Dutch map depicting Asia with illustrations of its various people, by Nicolaes Visscher I (1618-1679), Boston Public Library, Boston, 1658 - Nicolaes Visscher I (1618-1679) was a Dutch cartographer, engraver and publisher, the son of famed Dutch Golden Age draughtsman Claes Janszoon Visscher. He produced various double hemisphere maps, often working alongside his son, Nicolaes Visscher II, who continued the family tradition after his death.  ©Scanned by Norman B. Leventhal Map Centre/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Asia: A Dutch map depicting Asia with illustrations of its various people, by Nicolaes Visscher I (1618-1679), Boston Public Library, Boston, 1658 - Nicolaes Visscher I (1618-1679) was a Dutch cartographer, engraver and publisher, the son of famed Dutch Golden Age draughtsman Claes Janszoon Visscher. He produced various double hemisphere maps, often working alongside his son, Nicolaes Visscher II, who continued the family tradition after his death. ©Scanned by Norman B. Leventhal Map Centre/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Middle East: Dutch engraved map depicting 'the Promised Land of Canaan', by Nicolaes Visscher I (1618-1679), Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art, Eugene, 1682 - Nicolaes Visscher I (1618-1679) was a Dutch cartographer, engraver and publisher, the son of famed Dutch Golden Age draughtsman Claes Janszoon Visscher. He produced various double hemisphere maps, often working alongside his son, Nicolaes Visscher II, who continued the family tradition after his death.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Middle East: Dutch engraved map depicting 'the Promised Land of Canaan', by Nicolaes Visscher I (1618-1679), Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art, Eugene, 1682 - Nicolaes Visscher I (1618-1679) was a Dutch cartographer, engraver and publisher, the son of famed Dutch Golden Age draughtsman Claes Janszoon Visscher. He produced various double hemisphere maps, often working alongside his son, Nicolaes Visscher II, who continued the family tradition after his death. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Netherlands: William I, Prince of Orange (1533-1584), engraving by H. Jacobsen (active 17th century), Peace Palace Library, The Hague, 1614 - William I, Prince of Orange (1533-1584), also known as William the Silent and William the Taciturn, was a wealthy nobleman from the Dutch provinces of the Spanish Netherlands. He originally served the Spanish Habsburgs, but increasing dissatisfaction with the centralisation of power away from the local estates and Spanish persecution of Dutch Protestants led William to join the Dutch revolt and becoming its main leader.  As leader of the uprising, William led the Dutch to several successes against the Spanish, setting off the Eighty Years' War (1568-1648). He was declared an outlaw by the Spanish king in 1580, before helping to declare the formal independence of the Dutch Republic, also known as the United Provinces, in 1581. He was eventually assassinated by Balthasar Gerard in 1584.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Netherlands: William I, Prince of Orange (1533-1584), engraving by H. Jacobsen (active 17th century), Peace Palace Library, The Hague, 1614 - William I, Prince of Orange (1533-1584), also known as William the Silent and William the Taciturn, was a wealthy nobleman from the Dutch provinces of the Spanish Netherlands. He originally served the Spanish Habsburgs, but increasing dissatisfaction with the centralisation of power away from the local estates and Spanish persecution of Dutch Protestants led William to join the Dutch revolt and becoming its main leader.

As leader of the uprising, William led the Dutch to several successes against the Spanish, setting off the Eighty Years' War (1568-1648). He was declared an outlaw by the Spanish king in 1580, before helping to declare the formal independence of the Dutch Republic, also known as the United Provinces, in 1581. He was eventually assassinated by Balthasar Gerard in 1584. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
England: Queen Mary II (1662-1694), engraving by Pieter Mortier (1661-1711), Peace Palace Library, The Hague, 1703 - Mary II was Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland and daughter of King James II and VII. She was married to her cousin, William of Orange, in 1677 at the age of fifteen. When her father, a Roman Catholic, ascended to the throne in 1685 to the displeasure of the mainly Protestant British populace, her husband was convinced to invade England in 1689 and overthrow her father in what was known as the 'Glorious Revolution'.  Mary ruled as equal sovereign with her husband, their joint reign often referred to as that of William and Mary, though in truth she ceded most of her authority to her husband when he was in England; despite this, William relied heavily on her, and she would act alone whenever William was militarily engaged abroad. Mary proved herself to be a powerful and effective ruler until her death in 1694.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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England: Queen Mary II (1662-1694), engraving by Pieter Mortier (1661-1711), Peace Palace Library, The Hague, 1703 - Mary II was Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland and daughter of King James II and VII. She was married to her cousin, William of Orange, in 1677 at the age of fifteen. When her father, a Roman Catholic, ascended to the throne in 1685 to the displeasure of the mainly Protestant British populace, her husband was convinced to invade England in 1689 and overthrow her father in what was known as the 'Glorious Revolution'.

Mary ruled as equal sovereign with her husband, their joint reign often referred to as that of William and Mary, though in truth she ceded most of her authority to her husband when he was in England; despite this, William relied heavily on her, and she would act alone whenever William was militarily engaged abroad. Mary proved herself to be a powerful and effective ruler until her death in 1694. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
England: King William III (1650-1702), engraving by Pieter Mortier (1661-1711), Peace Palace Library, The Hague, 1703 - William III of England (1650-1702), commonly known as William of Orange and in Scotland as William II (informally as 'King Billy'), was a Dutch Prince of Orange. Baptised as William Henry, he was Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Gelderland, Overijssel and Utrecht in the Dutch Republic. He inherited the principality of Orange from his father, William II, who died from smallpox a week before his son's birth; his mother Mary was the daughter of King Charles I of England.  William, as a Protestant, participated in several wars against King Louis XIV of France, who was a Catholic, becoming a champion of the faith. In 1677, he married his cousin Mary, daughter of his uncle James, the Duke of York. In 1688, William III invaded England at the behest of influential British political and religious leaders in what became known as the 'Glorious Revolution', to overthrow his uncle, who had become an unpopular and Catholic king.  His campaign was successful and he deposed his uncle. William ruled as joint sovereigns with his wife Mary until her death in 1694, after which he ruled alone. His reign marked the start of the transformation from the direct rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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England: King William III (1650-1702), engraving by Pieter Mortier (1661-1711), Peace Palace Library, The Hague, 1703 - William III of England (1650-1702), commonly known as William of Orange and in Scotland as William II (informally as 'King Billy'), was a Dutch Prince of Orange. Baptised as William Henry, he was Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Gelderland, Overijssel and Utrecht in the Dutch Republic. He inherited the principality of Orange from his father, William II, who died from smallpox a week before his son's birth; his mother Mary was the daughter of King Charles I of England.

William, as a Protestant, participated in several wars against King Louis XIV of France, who was a Catholic, becoming a champion of the faith. In 1677, he married his cousin Mary, daughter of his uncle James, the Duke of York. In 1688, William III invaded England at the behest of influential British political and religious leaders in what became known as the 'Glorious Revolution', to overthrow his uncle, who had become an unpopular and Catholic king.

His campaign was successful and he deposed his uncle. William ruled as joint sovereigns with his wife Mary until her death in 1694, after which he ruled alone. His reign marked the start of the transformation from the direct rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Persia / Iran: Page from the illuminated manuscript 'The Lights of Canopus' (Anwar-i Suhayli) depicting a sleeping man being watched over by women, possibly his wives, by Mirza Rahim, 19th century, Iran - The Anwar-i Suhayli or 'The Lights of Canopus', commonly known as the Fables of Bidpai in the West, is a Persian version of the ancient Indian collection of animal fables, the <i>Panchatantra</i>. It tells a tale of a Persian physician, Burzuyah, and his mission to India, where he stumbles upon a book of stories collected from the animals who reside there.  In a similar vein to the <i>Arabian Nights</i>, the fables in the manuscript are inter-woven as the characters of one story recount the next, leading up to three or four degrees of narrative embedding. Many usually have morals or offer philosophical glimpses into human behaviour, emphasising loyalty and teamwork.  ©The Walters Art Museum/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Persia / Iran: Page from the illuminated manuscript 'The Lights of Canopus' (Anwar-i Suhayli) depicting a sleeping man being watched over by women, possibly his wives, by Mirza Rahim, 19th century, Iran - The Anwar-i Suhayli or 'The Lights of Canopus', commonly known as the Fables of Bidpai in the West, is a Persian version of the ancient Indian collection of animal fables, the <i>Panchatantra</i>. It tells a tale of a Persian physician, Burzuyah, and his mission to India, where he stumbles upon a book of stories collected from the animals who reside there.

In a similar vein to the <i>Arabian Nights</i>, the fables in the manuscript are inter-woven as the characters of one story recount the next, leading up to three or four degrees of narrative embedding. Many usually have morals or offer philosophical glimpses into human behaviour, emphasising loyalty and teamwork. ©The Walters Art Museum/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Otto IV (1175-1218), 22nd Holy Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Otto IV (1175-1218) was the third son of the rebellious Duke Henry the Lion, as well as being the nephew and foster son of King Richard Lionheart of England. He was born and raised in England by Richard, and therefore many consider him the first foreign king of Germany. When Emperor Henry VI died in 1197, some of the princes opposed to the Staufen dynasty elected Otto as anti-king in 1198.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: Otto IV (1175-1218), 22nd Holy Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Otto IV (1175-1218) was the third son of the rebellious Duke Henry the Lion, as well as being the nephew and foster son of King Richard Lionheart of England. He was born and raised in England by Richard, and therefore many consider him the first foreign king of Germany. When Emperor Henry VI died in 1197, some of the princes opposed to the Staufen dynasty elected Otto as anti-king in 1198. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Turkey / Byzantium: Theodosius II (401-450), Eastern Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Theodosius II (401-450), also known as Theodosius the Younger and Theodosius the Calligrapher, was the son of Emperor Arcadius of the Eastern Roman Empire. He was proclaimed co-ruler and Augustus a year after his birth, becoming the youngest person to ever bear the title. He became emperor after his father's death in 408 CE, aged only seven.  His older sister Pulcheria briefly assumed regency as Augusta until Theodosius was old enough in 416 CE. Theodosius was a devout Christian, waging wars against the Sassanids and others who persecuted Christianity. He also had to deal with the Huns under Attila, forced to constantly pay them off to maintain peace.  Theodosius was also known for promulgating the Theodosian law code and for his founding of the University of Constantinople. Theodosius eventually died in 450 CE from a riding accident, leading to a power struggle between his sister Pulcheria and the eunuch Chrysaphius.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Turkey / Byzantium: Theodosius II (401-450), Eastern Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Theodosius II (401-450), also known as Theodosius the Younger and Theodosius the Calligrapher, was the son of Emperor Arcadius of the Eastern Roman Empire. He was proclaimed co-ruler and Augustus a year after his birth, becoming the youngest person to ever bear the title. He became emperor after his father's death in 408 CE, aged only seven.

His older sister Pulcheria briefly assumed regency as Augusta until Theodosius was old enough in 416 CE. Theodosius was a devout Christian, waging wars against the Sassanids and others who persecuted Christianity. He also had to deal with the Huns under Attila, forced to constantly pay them off to maintain peace.

Theodosius was also known for promulgating the Theodosian law code and for his founding of the University of Constantinople. Theodosius eventually died in 450 CE from a riding accident, leading to a power struggle between his sister Pulcheria and the eunuch Chrysaphius. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Frederick III (1289-1330), King of Germany, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Frederick III (1289-1330), also known as Frederick the Handsome and Frederick the Fair, was the second son of King Albert I, thereby making him part of the Habsburg dynasty. He was made Duke of Austria and Styria in 1298 alongside his brother Rudolph III, becoming sole ruler after his brother died in 1307. He was originally a close friend to his cousin Louis IV of Wittelsbach, but they became enemies later in life.  When Emperor Henry VIII died in 1313, Frederick became a candidate for the throne, alongside his cousin Louis. Frederick received four out of seven elector votes, but a second election the next day saw Louis IV elected with five votes. Both were quickly crowned and became engaged in a civil war to see who would become the sole king of the Holy Roman Empire. Frederick was on the verge of victory when he was decisvely beaten in 1322 and taken prisoner by Louis, who held him captive for three years.  Frederick eventually recognised Louis' legitimacy in 1325 and vowed to convice his younger brothers, who still refused to acknowledge Louis, to submit or else he would return himself to captivity. When he failed to convince his brother Leopold to surrender, he returned to Munich as Louis' prisoner, who was so impressed by Frederick's gesture that he freed him and made a new pact to rule the Empire jointly in 1325. Frederick would officially govern as King of Germany, while Louis was crowned Holy Roman emperor. Frederick withdrew from his regency in 1326, returning to rule only Austria and Styria, though he was still considered King of Germany till his death in 1330.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: Frederick III (1289-1330), King of Germany, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Frederick III (1289-1330), also known as Frederick the Handsome and Frederick the Fair, was the second son of King Albert I, thereby making him part of the Habsburg dynasty. He was made Duke of Austria and Styria in 1298 alongside his brother Rudolph III, becoming sole ruler after his brother died in 1307. He was originally a close friend to his cousin Louis IV of Wittelsbach, but they became enemies later in life.

When Emperor Henry VIII died in 1313, Frederick became a candidate for the throne, alongside his cousin Louis. Frederick received four out of seven elector votes, but a second election the next day saw Louis IV elected with five votes. Both were quickly crowned and became engaged in a civil war to see who would become the sole king of the Holy Roman Empire. Frederick was on the verge of victory when he was decisvely beaten in 1322 and taken prisoner by Louis, who held him captive for three years.

Frederick eventually recognised Louis' legitimacy in 1325 and vowed to convice his younger brothers, who still refused to acknowledge Louis, to submit or else he would return himself to captivity. When he failed to convince his brother Leopold to surrender, he returned to Munich as Louis' prisoner, who was so impressed by Frederick's gesture that he freed him and made a new pact to rule the Empire jointly in 1325. Frederick would officially govern as King of Germany, while Louis was crowned Holy Roman emperor. Frederick withdrew from his regency in 1326, returning to rule only Austria and Styria, though he was still considered King of Germany till his death in 1330. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Conrad I (881-918), King of East Francia, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Conrad I (881-918), also known as Conrad of Germany and Conrad the Younger, was the son of Duke Conrad of Thuringia and a maternal relative of Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia. After conflict with the rival Babenbergian dukes led to the death of his father, Conrad became duke of Franconia.  When King Louis the Child died in 911, Conrad became the first non-Carolingian king of East Francia. Conrad soon found that, since he had been a duke himself, establishing his authority over the dukes became a rather difficult proposition, with the various dukes either making great demands of him or rebelling against his rule at various times.  It was while trying to put down one of his errant dukes, Duke Arnulf of Bavaria, that Conrad received a severe injury which would lead to his death in December 918. On his deathbed Conrad managed to persuade his younger brother Eberhard of Franconia to give the crown to Duke Henry the Fowler of Saxony, believing him to be the only man who could hold East Francia together.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: Conrad I (881-918), King of East Francia, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Conrad I (881-918), also known as Conrad of Germany and Conrad the Younger, was the son of Duke Conrad of Thuringia and a maternal relative of Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia. After conflict with the rival Babenbergian dukes led to the death of his father, Conrad became duke of Franconia.

When King Louis the Child died in 911, Conrad became the first non-Carolingian king of East Francia. Conrad soon found that, since he had been a duke himself, establishing his authority over the dukes became a rather difficult proposition, with the various dukes either making great demands of him or rebelling against his rule at various times.

It was while trying to put down one of his errant dukes, Duke Arnulf of Bavaria, that Conrad received a severe injury which would lead to his death in December 918. On his deathbed Conrad managed to persuade his younger brother Eberhard of Franconia to give the crown to Duke Henry the Fowler of Saxony, believing him to be the only man who could hold East Francia together. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Icon of Frederick III (1289-1330), King of Germany, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm, ex priscis numismatibus ad viuum delineatae, & breui narratione historica, 1645 - Frederick III (1289-1330), also known as Frederick the Handsome and Frederick the Fair, was the second son of King Albert I, thereby making him part of the Habsburg dynasty. He was made Duke of Austria and Styria in 1298 alongside his brother Rudolph III, becoming sole ruler after his brother died in 1307. He was originally a close friend to his cousin Louis IV of Wittelsbach, but they became enemies later in life.  When Emperor Henry VIII died in 1313, Frederick became a candidate for the throne, alongside his cousin Louis. Frederick received four out of seven elector votes, but a second election the next day saw Louis IV elected with five votes. Both were quickly crowned and became engaged in a civil war to see who would become the sole king of the Holy Roman Empire. Frederick was on the verge of victory when he was decisvely beaten in 1322 and taken prisoner by Louis, who held him captive for three years.  Frederick eventually recognised Louis' legitimacy in 1325 and vowed to convice his younger brothers, who still refused to acknowledge Louis, to submit or else he would return himself to captivity. When he failed to convince his brother Leopold to surrender, he returned to Munich as Louis' prisoner, who was so impressed by Frederick's gesture that he freed him and made a new pact to rule the Empire jointly in 1325. Frederick would officially govern as King of Germany, while Louis was crowned Holy Roman emperor. Frederick withdrew from his regency in 1326, returning to rule only Austria and Styria, though he was still considered King of Germany till his death in 1330.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: Icon of Frederick III (1289-1330), King of Germany, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm, ex priscis numismatibus ad viuum delineatae, & breui narratione historica, 1645 - Frederick III (1289-1330), also known as Frederick the Handsome and Frederick the Fair, was the second son of King Albert I, thereby making him part of the Habsburg dynasty. He was made Duke of Austria and Styria in 1298 alongside his brother Rudolph III, becoming sole ruler after his brother died in 1307. He was originally a close friend to his cousin Louis IV of Wittelsbach, but they became enemies later in life.

When Emperor Henry VIII died in 1313, Frederick became a candidate for the throne, alongside his cousin Louis. Frederick received four out of seven elector votes, but a second election the next day saw Louis IV elected with five votes. Both were quickly crowned and became engaged in a civil war to see who would become the sole king of the Holy Roman Empire. Frederick was on the verge of victory when he was decisvely beaten in 1322 and taken prisoner by Louis, who held him captive for three years.

Frederick eventually recognised Louis' legitimacy in 1325 and vowed to convice his younger brothers, who still refused to acknowledge Louis, to submit or else he would return himself to captivity. When he failed to convince his brother Leopold to surrender, he returned to Munich as Louis' prisoner, who was so impressed by Frederick's gesture that he freed him and made a new pact to rule the Empire jointly in 1325. Frederick would officially govern as King of Germany, while Louis was crowned Holy Roman emperor. Frederick withdrew from his regency in 1326, returning to rule only Austria and Styria, though he was still considered King of Germany till his death in 1330. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Henry VI (1165-1197), 21st Holy Roman emperor, from the Manesse Codex, 1305-1315 - Henry VI (1165-1197) was the second son of Emperor Frederick I, and married the daughter of the late Norman king Roger II of Sicily, Constance of Sicily, in 1186. When his father died in 1190, he became King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor in 1191.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: Henry VI (1165-1197), 21st Holy Roman emperor, from the Manesse Codex, 1305-1315 - Henry VI (1165-1197) was the second son of Emperor Frederick I, and married the daughter of the late Norman king Roger II of Sicily, Constance of Sicily, in 1186. When his father died in 1190, he became King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor in 1191. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Persia / Iran: Detail from the illuminated manuscript 'The Lights of Canopus' (Anwar-i Suhayli) depicting a sleeping man being watched over by women, possibly his wives, by Mirza Rahim, 19th century, Iran - The Anwar-i Suhayli or 'The Lights of Canopus', commonly known as the Fables of Bidpai in the West, is a Persian version of the ancient Indian collection of animal fables, the <i>Panchatantra</i>. It tells a tale of a Persian physician, Burzuyah, and his mission to India, where he stumbles upon a book of stories collected from the animals who reside there.  In a similar vein to the <i>Arabian Nights</i>, the fables in the manuscript are inter-woven as the characters of one story recount the next, leading up to three or four degrees of narrative embedding. Many usually have morals or offer philosophical glimpses into human behaviour, emphasising loyalty and teamwork.  ©The Walters Art Museum/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Persia / Iran: Detail from the illuminated manuscript 'The Lights of Canopus' (Anwar-i Suhayli) depicting a sleeping man being watched over by women, possibly his wives, by Mirza Rahim, 19th century, Iran - The Anwar-i Suhayli or 'The Lights of Canopus', commonly known as the Fables of Bidpai in the West, is a Persian version of the ancient Indian collection of animal fables, the <i>Panchatantra</i>. It tells a tale of a Persian physician, Burzuyah, and his mission to India, where he stumbles upon a book of stories collected from the animals who reside there.

In a similar vein to the <i>Arabian Nights</i>, the fables in the manuscript are inter-woven as the characters of one story recount the next, leading up to three or four degrees of narrative embedding. Many usually have morals or offer philosophical glimpses into human behaviour, emphasising loyalty and teamwork. ©The Walters Art Museum/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Sigismund (1368-1437), 27th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Sigismund (1368-1437), also known as Sigismund of Luxembourg, was the son of Emperor Charles IV and younger brother of King Wenceslaus. Sigismund was betrothed to Princess Mary, eldest daughter of King Louis the Great of Hungary and Poland, marrying her in 1385 and becoming King of Hungary and Croatia in 1387.  Sigismund led the last West European Crusade, the Crusade of Nicopolis, in 1396, leading a combined Christian army against the Turks. The Crusade was a disaster and ended in defeat, Sigismund being imprisoned and deposed in 1401 upon his return to Hungary, though he would later regain the throne. He imprisoned his own brother, King Wenceslaus, in 1403, taking over rule of Bohemia. He was elected as King of Germany in 1411 after the death of King Rupert. He also became King of Bohemia in 1419 and managed to be crowned King of Italy in 1431.  Sigismund marched into Rome and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1433. He led multiple campaigns against the Turkish Ottoman Empire, all with little success, and founded the Order of the Dragon in 1408 with the sole goal of fighting the Turks. He also waged the Hussite Wars from 1419 to 1430. Sigismund died in 1437, the last of the Luxembourg dynasty.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: Sigismund (1368-1437), 27th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Sigismund (1368-1437), also known as Sigismund of Luxembourg, was the son of Emperor Charles IV and younger brother of King Wenceslaus. Sigismund was betrothed to Princess Mary, eldest daughter of King Louis the Great of Hungary and Poland, marrying her in 1385 and becoming King of Hungary and Croatia in 1387.

Sigismund led the last West European Crusade, the Crusade of Nicopolis, in 1396, leading a combined Christian army against the Turks. The Crusade was a disaster and ended in defeat, Sigismund being imprisoned and deposed in 1401 upon his return to Hungary, though he would later regain the throne. He imprisoned his own brother, King Wenceslaus, in 1403, taking over rule of Bohemia. He was elected as King of Germany in 1411 after the death of King Rupert. He also became King of Bohemia in 1419 and managed to be crowned King of Italy in 1431.

Sigismund marched into Rome and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1433. He led multiple campaigns against the Turkish Ottoman Empire, all with little success, and founded the Order of the Dragon in 1408 with the sole goal of fighting the Turks. He also waged the Hussite Wars from 1419 to 1430. Sigismund died in 1437, the last of the Luxembourg dynasty. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Icon of Sigismund (1368-1437), 27th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm, ex priscis numismatibus ad viuum delineatae, & breui narratione historica, 1645 - Sigismund (1368-1437), also known as Sigismund of Luxembourg, was the son of Emperor Charles IV and younger brother of King Wenceslaus. Sigismund was betrothed to Princess Mary, eldest daughter of King Louis the Great of Hungary and Poland, marrying her in 1385 and becoming King of Hungary and Croatia in 1387.  Sigismund led the last West European Crusade, the Crusade of Nicopolis, in 1396, leading a combined Christian army against the Turks. The Crusade was a disaster and ended in defeat, Sigismund being imprisoned and deposed in 1401 upon his return to Hungary, though he would later regain the throne. He imprisoned his own brother, King Wenceslaus, in 1403, taking over rule of Bohemia. He was elected as King of Germany in 1411 after the death of King Rupert. He also became King of Bohemia in 1419 and managed to be crowned King of Italy in 1431.  Sigismund marched into Rome and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1433. He led multiple campaigns against the Turkish Ottoman Empire, all with little success, and founded the Order of the Dragon in 1408 with the sole goal of fighting the Turks. He also waged the Hussite Wars from 1419 to 1430. Sigismund died in 1437, the last of the Luxembourg dynasty.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: Icon of Sigismund (1368-1437), 27th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm, ex priscis numismatibus ad viuum delineatae, & breui narratione historica, 1645 - Sigismund (1368-1437), also known as Sigismund of Luxembourg, was the son of Emperor Charles IV and younger brother of King Wenceslaus. Sigismund was betrothed to Princess Mary, eldest daughter of King Louis the Great of Hungary and Poland, marrying her in 1385 and becoming King of Hungary and Croatia in 1387.

Sigismund led the last West European Crusade, the Crusade of Nicopolis, in 1396, leading a combined Christian army against the Turks. The Crusade was a disaster and ended in defeat, Sigismund being imprisoned and deposed in 1401 upon his return to Hungary, though he would later regain the throne. He imprisoned his own brother, King Wenceslaus, in 1403, taking over rule of Bohemia. He was elected as King of Germany in 1411 after the death of King Rupert. He also became King of Bohemia in 1419 and managed to be crowned King of Italy in 1431.

Sigismund marched into Rome and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1433. He led multiple campaigns against the Turkish Ottoman Empire, all with little success, and founded the Order of the Dragon in 1408 with the sole goal of fighting the Turks. He also waged the Hussite Wars from 1419 to 1430. Sigismund died in 1437, the last of the Luxembourg dynasty. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Philip of Swabia (1177-1208), King of Germany, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Philip (1177-1208), also known as Philip of Swabia, was the youngest son of Emperor Frederick I and younger brother of Emperor Henry VI. Philip was originally prepared for a life in the clergy, but he forsook his ecclesiastical calling in 1191 after travelling to Italy, and was made Duke of Tuscany in 1195, as well as becoming Duke of Swabia in 1196 after the death of his brother Conrad. He married Princess Irene Angelina, daughter of Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelos in 1197.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: Philip of Swabia (1177-1208), King of Germany, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Philip (1177-1208), also known as Philip of Swabia, was the youngest son of Emperor Frederick I and younger brother of Emperor Henry VI. Philip was originally prepared for a life in the clergy, but he forsook his ecclesiastical calling in 1191 after travelling to Italy, and was made Duke of Tuscany in 1195, as well as becoming Duke of Swabia in 1196 after the death of his brother Conrad. He married Princess Irene Angelina, daughter of Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelos in 1197. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Maxentius (278-312), 56th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Maxentius (278-312) was the son of former Emperor Maximian, and son-in-law to Emperor Galerius. When his father and Emperor Diocletian stepped down, Maxentius was passed over in the new tetrarchy established by Emperors Constantius and Galerius, the latter nominating Severus and Maximinus Daia as junior co-emperors. Galerius hated Maxentius and used his influence to halt his succession.  When Constantius died in 306 and his son Constantine was crowned emperor and accepted into the tetrarchy, Maxentius was publicly proclaimed emperor later in the same year by officers in Rome. Severus marched to Rome in 307 to punish Maxentius, but most of his army defected when they arrived, having served under his father Maximian for many years. Maxentius invited his father back to the capital and named him co-emperor, though this lasted less than a year before Maximian fled to the court of Constantine after a failed coup.  Maxentius ruled over his portion of the empire for roughly six years, and was mostly preoccupied with a civil war against Emperors Constantine and Licinius. He allied himself with Emperor Maximinus II to secure his power, but he eventually perished during the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 against Constantine, where he supposedly drowned in the Tiber River while attempting to retreat.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Maxentius (278-312), 56th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Maxentius (278-312) was the son of former Emperor Maximian, and son-in-law to Emperor Galerius. When his father and Emperor Diocletian stepped down, Maxentius was passed over in the new tetrarchy established by Emperors Constantius and Galerius, the latter nominating Severus and Maximinus Daia as junior co-emperors. Galerius hated Maxentius and used his influence to halt his succession.

When Constantius died in 306 and his son Constantine was crowned emperor and accepted into the tetrarchy, Maxentius was publicly proclaimed emperor later in the same year by officers in Rome. Severus marched to Rome in 307 to punish Maxentius, but most of his army defected when they arrived, having served under his father Maximian for many years. Maxentius invited his father back to the capital and named him co-emperor, though this lasted less than a year before Maximian fled to the court of Constantine after a failed coup.

Maxentius ruled over his portion of the empire for roughly six years, and was mostly preoccupied with a civil war against Emperors Constantine and Licinius. He allied himself with Emperor Maximinus II to secure his power, but he eventually perished during the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 against Constantine, where he supposedly drowned in the Tiber River while attempting to retreat. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Illustration of Louis IV (1282-1347), 25th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Louis IV (1282-1347), also known as Louis the Bavarian, was the son of Duke Louis II of Upper Bavaria and Matilda, daughter of King Rudolf I. He was of House Wittelsbach, and was initially a close friend to his Habsburg cousin Frederick the Fair, but they later fell out and violently clashed. He became Duke of Bavaria in 1301 alongside his brother Rudolf I, but became sole ruler in 1317.  When Emperor Henry VII died in 1313, two kings were elected to succeed him, one being Louis himself and the other his cousin Frederick. They were quickly crowned and then fought each other in a bloody war for several years, with Frederick poised to win until a decisive defeat in 1322 saw him captured by Louis. Louis later freed him in 1325, after Frederick recognised him as the legitimate King of Germany, and when Frederick returned to Louis as a prisoner when he could have easily fled after promising to try and covince his brothers to submit, Louis was so impressed by Frederick that he named him co-ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.   To Frederick went the title of King of Germany, while Louis was crowned as King of Italy in 1327 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. Louis found himself in conflict with the papacy and the pope, and in 1346 Charles IV of Luxembourg was elected as anti-king, supported by Pope Clement VI as a papal puppet. He successfully resisted Charles' attempts at usurpation, but Louis' sudden death in 1347 from a stroke while bear-hunting prevented a longer civil war from occurring and gave Charles the crown.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: Illustration of Louis IV (1282-1347), 25th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Louis IV (1282-1347), also known as Louis the Bavarian, was the son of Duke Louis II of Upper Bavaria and Matilda, daughter of King Rudolf I. He was of House Wittelsbach, and was initially a close friend to his Habsburg cousin Frederick the Fair, but they later fell out and violently clashed. He became Duke of Bavaria in 1301 alongside his brother Rudolf I, but became sole ruler in 1317.

When Emperor Henry VII died in 1313, two kings were elected to succeed him, one being Louis himself and the other his cousin Frederick. They were quickly crowned and then fought each other in a bloody war for several years, with Frederick poised to win until a decisive defeat in 1322 saw him captured by Louis. Louis later freed him in 1325, after Frederick recognised him as the legitimate King of Germany, and when Frederick returned to Louis as a prisoner when he could have easily fled after promising to try and covince his brothers to submit, Louis was so impressed by Frederick that he named him co-ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.

To Frederick went the title of King of Germany, while Louis was crowned as King of Italy in 1327 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. Louis found himself in conflict with the papacy and the pope, and in 1346 Charles IV of Luxembourg was elected as anti-king, supported by Pope Clement VI as a papal puppet. He successfully resisted Charles' attempts at usurpation, but Louis' sudden death in 1347 from a stroke while bear-hunting prevented a longer civil war from occurring and gave Charles the crown. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Icon of Louis IV (1282-1347), 25th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm, ex priscis numismatibus ad viuum delineatae, & breui narratione historica, 1645 - Louis IV (1282-1347), also known as Louis the Bavarian, was the son of Duke Louis II of Upper Bavaria and Matilda, daughter of King Rudolf I. He was of House Wittelsbach, and was initially a close friend to his Habsburg cousin Frederick the Fair, but they later fell out and violently clashed. He became Duke of Bavaria in 1301 alongside his brother Rudolf I, but became sole ruler in 1317.  When Emperor Henry VII died in 1313, two kings were elected to succeed him, one being Louis himself and the other his cousin Frederick. They were quickly crowned and then fought each other in a bloody war for several years, with Frederick poised to win until a decisive defeat in 1322 saw him captured by Louis. Louis later freed him in 1325, after Frederick recognised him as the legitimate King of Germany, and when Frederick returned to Louis as a prisoner when he could have easily fled after promising to try and covince his brothers to submit, Louis was so impressed by Frederick that he named him co-ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.   To Frederick went the title of King of Germany, while Louis was crowned as King of Italy in 1327 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. Louis found himself in conflict with the papacy and the pope, and in 1346 Charles IV of Luxembourg was elected as anti-king, supported by Pope Clement VI as a papal puppet. He successfully resisted Charles' attempts at usurpation, but Louis' sudden death in 1347 from a stroke while bear-hunting prevented a longer civil war from occurring and gave Charles the crown.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany: Icon of Louis IV (1282-1347), 25th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Icones imperatorvm romanorvm, ex priscis numismatibus ad viuum delineatae, & breui narratione historica, 1645 - Louis IV (1282-1347), also known as Louis the Bavarian, was the son of Duke Louis II of Upper Bavaria and Matilda, daughter of King Rudolf I. He was of House Wittelsbach, and was initially a close friend to his Habsburg cousin Frederick the Fair, but they later fell out and violently clashed. He became Duke of Bavaria in 1301 alongside his brother Rudolf I, but became sole ruler in 1317.

When Emperor Henry VII died in 1313, two kings were elected to succeed him, one being Louis himself and the other his cousin Frederick. They were quickly crowned and then fought each other in a bloody war for several years, with Frederick poised to win until a decisive defeat in 1322 saw him captured by Louis. Louis later freed him in 1325, after Frederick recognised him as the legitimate King of Germany, and when Frederick returned to Louis as a prisoner when he could have easily fled after promising to try and covince his brothers to submit, Louis was so impressed by Frederick that he named him co-ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.

To Frederick went the title of King of Germany, while Louis was crowned as King of Italy in 1327 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. Louis found himself in conflict with the papacy and the pope, and in 1346 Charles IV of Luxembourg was elected as anti-king, supported by Pope Clement VI as a papal puppet. He successfully resisted Charles' attempts at usurpation, but Louis' sudden death in 1347 from a stroke while bear-hunting prevented a longer civil war from occurring and gave Charles the crown. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany / France: Louis II (825-875), 4th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Louis II (825-875), also known as Louis of Italy and Louis the Younger, was the eldest son of Emperor Lothair I, who he co-ruled with until 855, after which he inherited the imperial throne and ruled alone. Louis II was also King of Italy, and governed the kingdom before his ascension to emperor.  When his father died and his lands were divided amongst his sons, Louis was angry that he obtained no territory outside of Italy. Allying himself with his uncle, Louis the German, he fought against his own brother Lothair, King of Lotharingia, as well as his other uncle, King Charles the Bald, in 857. He reconciled with his brother in 858, and received the Kingdom of Provence in 863 after the death of his brother Charles. Louis had to deal with turbulence and chaos in Italy, as well as with Saracens ravaging its southern provinces, procuring the aid of Byzantine emperor Basil.  Louis was betrayed and imprisoned by one of his own nobles, Adelchis, Prince of Benevento, in 871, but was freed a month later due to fresh Saracen incursions. He unsuccessfully tried to punish Adelchis for his imprisonment, but had better luck against the Saracens. He eventually died in 875, naming his cousin Carloman as his successor.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Germany / France: Louis II (825-875), 4th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Louis II (825-875), also known as Louis of Italy and Louis the Younger, was the eldest son of Emperor Lothair I, who he co-ruled with until 855, after which he inherited the imperial throne and ruled alone. Louis II was also King of Italy, and governed the kingdom before his ascension to emperor.

When his father died and his lands were divided amongst his sons, Louis was angry that he obtained no territory outside of Italy. Allying himself with his uncle, Louis the German, he fought against his own brother Lothair, King of Lotharingia, as well as his other uncle, King Charles the Bald, in 857. He reconciled with his brother in 858, and received the Kingdom of Provence in 863 after the death of his brother Charles. Louis had to deal with turbulence and chaos in Italy, as well as with Saracens ravaging its southern provinces, procuring the aid of Byzantine emperor Basil.

Louis was betrayed and imprisoned by one of his own nobles, Adelchis, Prince of Benevento, in 871, but was freed a month later due to fresh Saracen incursions. He unsuccessfully tried to punish Adelchis for his imprisonment, but had better luck against the Saracens. He eventually died in 875, naming his cousin Carloman as his successor. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Turkey / Byzantium: Justin II (520-578), Byzantine emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Justin II (520-578) was the nephew of Emperor Justinian I and had supposedly been named his heir on the emperor's deathbed. Justin's early rule relied completely on the support of the aristocratic party, and faced with an empty treasury, he stopped paying off potential enemies as his uncle had done, leading to Avar invasions across the Danube river.  Justin renewed conflict with the Sassanid Empire, refusing to pay tribute and making overtures with the Turks. However, he oversaw two disastrous campaigns that saw the Persians taking Syria and capturing the vitally important fortress of Dara. It was after these events that Justin reportedly lost his mind, falling into temporary bouts of insanity.  Jusitn was advised by his wife Sophia to name a successor during his brief periods of sanity, choosing the general Tiberius over his own relatives in 574, adopting him as a son before withdrawing into retirement. He died four years later in 578, his insanity growing worse the whole time.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Turkey / Byzantium: Justin II (520-578), Byzantine emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Justin II (520-578) was the nephew of Emperor Justinian I and had supposedly been named his heir on the emperor's deathbed. Justin's early rule relied completely on the support of the aristocratic party, and faced with an empty treasury, he stopped paying off potential enemies as his uncle had done, leading to Avar invasions across the Danube river.

Justin renewed conflict with the Sassanid Empire, refusing to pay tribute and making overtures with the Turks. However, he oversaw two disastrous campaigns that saw the Persians taking Syria and capturing the vitally important fortress of Dara. It was after these events that Justin reportedly lost his mind, falling into temporary bouts of insanity.

Jusitn was advised by his wife Sophia to name a successor during his brief periods of sanity, choosing the general Tiberius over his own relatives in 574, adopting him as a son before withdrawing into retirement. He died four years later in 578, his insanity growing worse the whole time. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Florianus (-276), 46th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Florianus (-276), also known as Florian, was the maternal half-brother of Emperor Tacitus. He was made Praetorian Prefect by Tacitus in his war against the Goths, and when Tacitus died in 276, the army in the West declared Florian the next emperor without the consent of the Senate.  Florian had the support of many of the western provinces, while rival claimant Probus had the support of the eastern provinces. The two rivals fought each other at the Battle of Cilicia, with Florian possessing the larger army but Probus being a more experienced general.  Florian's army, not used to the hot and dry climate of Cilicia, soon began to lose their confidence. They eventually turned on him and executed him in September 276, barely eighty-eight days into his reign.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Florianus (-276), 46th Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Florianus (-276), also known as Florian, was the maternal half-brother of Emperor Tacitus. He was made Praetorian Prefect by Tacitus in his war against the Goths, and when Tacitus died in 276, the army in the West declared Florian the next emperor without the consent of the Senate.

Florian had the support of many of the western provinces, while rival claimant Probus had the support of the eastern provinces. The two rivals fought each other at the Battle of Cilicia, with Florian possessing the larger army but Probus being a more experienced general.

Florian's army, not used to the hot and dry climate of Cilicia, soon began to lose their confidence. They eventually turned on him and executed him in September 276, barely eighty-eight days into his reign. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Magnus Maximus (335-388), Western Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Magnus Maximus (335-388) was born in Gallaecia, and would later become a distinguished general serving under Count Theodosius, father of Emperor Theodosius I, fighting in Africa and on the Danube, as well as during the Great Conspiracy in Britain, where he would later be permanently assigned in 380.   When the people became displeased with the western emperor Gratian, his troops proclaimed Maximus emperor, and aided him in his imperial ambitions. Gratian was slain in Lyon, and Maximus later marched into Italy to overthrow Valentinian II. He was only stopped by the intervention of the Eastern Roman Emperor, Theodosius I, who negotiated with him and saw Maximus recognised as co-emperor in the west.  Maximus' ambitions could not be quelled however, and he invaded Italy once more in 387, only to be finally defeated and killed by Theodosius I at the Battle of the Save in 388. To some historians, Maximus' death marked the end of direct imperial presence in Northern Gaul and Britain.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
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Italy: Magnus Maximus (335-388), Western Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Magnus Maximus (335-388) was born in Gallaecia, and would later become a distinguished general serving under Count Theodosius, father of Emperor Theodosius I, fighting in Africa and on the Danube, as well as during the Great Conspiracy in Britain, where he would later be permanently assigned in 380.

When the people became displeased with the western emperor Gratian, his troops proclaimed Maximus emperor, and aided him in his imperial ambitions. Gratian was slain in Lyon, and Maximus later marched into Italy to overthrow Valentinian II. He was only stopped by the intervention of the Eastern Roman Emperor, Theodosius I, who negotiated with him and saw Maximus recognised as co-emperor in the west.

Maximus' ambitions could not be quelled however, and he invaded Italy once more in 387, only to be finally defeated and killed by Theodosius I at the Battle of the Save in 388. To some historians, Maximus' death marked the end of direct imperial presence in Northern Gaul and Britain. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works

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