• Archives
  • Tools
Layout
Show:
Save

"Illustration"

Okapia Johnstoni.  1903  ©Mary Evans Picture Library / The Image Works
EMEP0141653.jpg
Okapia Johnstoni. 1903 ©Mary Evans Picture Library / The Image Works
TEUTONIC MYTH - ODIN. The god Odin, with his two ravens (reminders that he was once the leader of the Raven clan).  Odin was the leader of the Aesirs, and the patron god of warriors:  in this engraving he is portrayed as the God of the Dead, seated on a prehistoric tumulus grave.  Odin is said to have learned the secret of the runes after hanging for nine days on the gallows-tree.  He is also supposed to have sacrificed one of his eyes to the guardian giant, Mimir, for a drink of the magic cauldron [Odherir] that conferred Wisdom.   © Charles Walker / TopFoto / The Image Works
ETPM0700044.jpg
TEUTONIC MYTH - ODIN. The god Odin, with his two ravens (reminders that he was once the leader of the Raven clan). Odin was the leader of the Aesirs, and the patron god of warriors: in this engraving he is portrayed as the God of the Dead, seated on a prehistoric tumulus grave. Odin is said to have learned the secret of the runes after hanging for nine days on the gallows-tree. He is also supposed to have sacrificed one of his eyes to the guardian giant, Mimir, for a drink of the magic cauldron [Odherir] that conferred Wisdom. © Charles Walker / TopFoto / The Image Works
Hot Springs, Arkansas: 1936. Lucky Luciano was extradited from the gambling spa of Hot Springs  to stand trial in New York 's State Supreme Court in May 1936 ©Topfoto/ The Image Works
ETPM1420991.jpg
Hot Springs, Arkansas: 1936. Lucky Luciano was extradited from the gambling spa of Hot Springs to stand trial in New York 's State Supreme Court in May 1936 ©Topfoto/ The Image Works
Submarine by Brutus de Villeroi 1864 for the USA navy.  ©Topfoto/ The Image Works
ETPM1415330.jpg
Submarine by Brutus de Villeroi 1864 for the USA navy. ©Topfoto/ The Image Works
SEA SERPENT ALOES - The ALOES seen off the coast of Hispaniola (West Indies) by the early navigators of Columbus's time late 15th century  ©Mary Evans Picture Library / The Image Works
EMEP0017890.jpg
SEA SERPENT ALOES - The ALOES seen off the coast of Hispaniola (West Indies) by the early navigators of Columbus's time late 15th century ©Mary Evans Picture Library / The Image Works
In the bay of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, fishermen report a creature 20  metres long, with a giraffe's neck and a serpent's head.  Others dismiss it as a hallucination.     Date: 1958 ©Mary Evans Picture Library/ The Image Works
EMEP0005792.jpg
In the bay of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, fishermen report a creature 20 metres long, with a giraffe's neck and a serpent's head. Others dismiss it as a hallucination. Date: 1958 ©Mary Evans Picture Library/ The Image Works
SEA SERPENT NORWAY - The PHYSETER of the Northern seas is powerful enough to sink a sailing vessel. 1555  ©Mary Evans Picture Library / The Image Works
EMEP0017895.jpg
SEA SERPENT NORWAY - The PHYSETER of the Northern seas is powerful enough to sink a sailing vessel. 1555 ©Mary Evans Picture Library / The Image Works
FOLKLORE/SEA SERPENT - SEA SERPENT LOOK-ALIKE Flat Oar-fish, also known as Ribbon Fish 1921  ©Mary Evans Picture Library / The Image Works
EMEP0011595.jpg
FOLKLORE/SEA SERPENT - SEA SERPENT LOOK-ALIKE Flat Oar-fish, also known as Ribbon Fish 1921 ©Mary Evans Picture Library / The Image Works
Germany: Lothair II (1075-1137), 20th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Lothair II (1075-1137) was the son of Saxon count Gebhard of Supplinburg, who joined the Saxon Rebellion against the Salian dynasty and died in 1075. Lothair was born posthumously and worked his way up the political ladder, purchasing lands and making marriage alliances throughout Saxony. In exchange for aiding Henry V in overthrowing his father, Emperor Henry IV, Lothair was made Duke of Saxony in 1106. He revolted against Henry V afterwards, but was defeated and pardoned in 1112.  Lothair subsequently rose against the emperor again in 1115, joining rebelling Saxon forces that defeated the emperor in various battles in Cologne. When Henry died in 1125, Lothair was elected as King of Germany by the nobility, thinking him easy to manipulate. Duke Frederick II, a member of the rising Hohenstaufen house, had aspirations to become Holy Roman emperor and waged a civil war against Lothair but was eventually defeated in 1134.  Lothair waged a partially successful campaign against King Roger II of Sicily in 1136, but the revolt of his German troops, refusing to campaign in the hot summer, prevented him from a complete conquest of Sicily. Lothair died while crossing the Alps in 1137. He was the first and last member of the Supplinburg dynasty, and the crown went to his former enemies, the Hohenstaufens, after his death, dashing his hopes of a Welf hereditary monachy.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0036500.jpg
Germany: Lothair II (1075-1137), 20th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Lothair II (1075-1137) was the son of Saxon count Gebhard of Supplinburg, who joined the Saxon Rebellion against the Salian dynasty and died in 1075. Lothair was born posthumously and worked his way up the political ladder, purchasing lands and making marriage alliances throughout Saxony. In exchange for aiding Henry V in overthrowing his father, Emperor Henry IV, Lothair was made Duke of Saxony in 1106. He revolted against Henry V afterwards, but was defeated and pardoned in 1112.

Lothair subsequently rose against the emperor again in 1115, joining rebelling Saxon forces that defeated the emperor in various battles in Cologne. When Henry died in 1125, Lothair was elected as King of Germany by the nobility, thinking him easy to manipulate. Duke Frederick II, a member of the rising Hohenstaufen house, had aspirations to become Holy Roman emperor and waged a civil war against Lothair but was eventually defeated in 1134.

Lothair waged a partially successful campaign against King Roger II of Sicily in 1136, but the revolt of his German troops, refusing to campaign in the hot summer, prevented him from a complete conquest of Sicily. Lothair died while crossing the Alps in 1137. He was the first and last member of the Supplinburg dynasty, and the crown went to his former enemies, the Hohenstaufens, after his death, dashing his hopes of a Welf hereditary monachy. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Afghanistan: Engraving of Shuja Shah Abdali Durrani (1785-1842) from L'Ile de Ceylan et ses curiosites naturelles by Octave Sachot (1824-1905), 1869 - Shuja Shah Abdali Durrani (1785-1842), also known as Shoja Shah, was the fifth Emir of Afghanistan, first ruling the Durrani Empire from 1803 to 1809. After he forced the deposition of his brother Zaman Shah in 1801 by having him blinded, he proclaimed himself King of Afghanistan, but did not formally ascend until 1803, after defeating his half-brother Mahmud Shah.  Shuja was overthrown by Mahmud Shah in 1809, going into exile in The Punjab and India. He became cruel and petty, often removing various body parts from his courtiers and slaves for the slightest of displeasures, such as having a slave castrated on the spot for not erecting a tent firmly enough when it was blown down by the wind.  Shuja was restored to power in 1838 by the British, who had believed that the Afghans would welcome the return of their 'rightful ruler', when most had already forgotten him. His barbarity became apparent to the British on the campaign trail when he had 50 prisoners beheaded on the spot, and they began to second-guess their decision to reinstate him. He considered his people to be 'dogs', and began exacting his cruel vengeance on them due to feelings of betrayal. It came as no surprise when he was assassinated in 1842.  ©Octave Schot (1824-1905)/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0036458.jpg
Afghanistan: Engraving of Shuja Shah Abdali Durrani (1785-1842) from L'Ile de Ceylan et ses curiosites naturelles by Octave Sachot (1824-1905), 1869 - Shuja Shah Abdali Durrani (1785-1842), also known as Shoja Shah, was the fifth Emir of Afghanistan, first ruling the Durrani Empire from 1803 to 1809. After he forced the deposition of his brother Zaman Shah in 1801 by having him blinded, he proclaimed himself King of Afghanistan, but did not formally ascend until 1803, after defeating his half-brother Mahmud Shah.

Shuja was overthrown by Mahmud Shah in 1809, going into exile in The Punjab and India. He became cruel and petty, often removing various body parts from his courtiers and slaves for the slightest of displeasures, such as having a slave castrated on the spot for not erecting a tent firmly enough when it was blown down by the wind.

Shuja was restored to power in 1838 by the British, who had believed that the Afghans would welcome the return of their 'rightful ruler', when most had already forgotten him. His barbarity became apparent to the British on the campaign trail when he had 50 prisoners beheaded on the spot, and they began to second-guess their decision to reinstate him. He considered his people to be 'dogs', and began exacting his cruel vengeance on them due to feelings of betrayal. It came as no surprise when he was assassinated in 1842. ©Octave Schot (1824-1905)/Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Copper engraving of Ferdinand III (1608-1657), 36th Holy Roman emperor, by Jacob von Sandrart (1630-1708), 17th-18th century - Ferdinand III (1608-1657) was the eldest son of Emperor Ferdinand II. He became Archduke of Austria in 1621, King of Hungary in 1625 and King of Bohemia in 1627. Ferdinand was appointed head of the Imperial Army in 1634 during the Thirty Years' War, and was vital in the negotiation of the Peace of Prague in 1635, the same year he was elected King of Germany. When his father died in 1637, he succeeded him as Holy Roman Emperor.  As emperor, Ferdinand wished for peace with France and Sweden, but the war would drag on for another 11 years, finally ending with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Composing of the Treaty of Munster with France and the Treaty of Osnabruck with Sweden, the Peace of Westphalia represented a major shift in the concept of sovereign nation-states and European power, especially in terms of national self-determination and non-interference. Ferdinand himself had in 1644 given the right for all rulers of German states to conduct their own foreign policy, which backfired on him and would contribute to the erosion of imperial authority in the Holy Roman Empire.  After the Peace of Westphalia, Ferdinand was busy enforcing and carrying out the terms of the treaty as well as getting rid of foreign soldiery from German lands. He soon reneged on the terms of the treaty by interfering in Italy in 1656, sending an army to assist Spain against France. As he was concluding an alliance with Poland to check Swedish aggression, Ferdinand died in 1657.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0036445.jpg
Germany: Copper engraving of Ferdinand III (1608-1657), 36th Holy Roman emperor, by Jacob von Sandrart (1630-1708), 17th-18th century - Ferdinand III (1608-1657) was the eldest son of Emperor Ferdinand II. He became Archduke of Austria in 1621, King of Hungary in 1625 and King of Bohemia in 1627. Ferdinand was appointed head of the Imperial Army in 1634 during the Thirty Years' War, and was vital in the negotiation of the Peace of Prague in 1635, the same year he was elected King of Germany. When his father died in 1637, he succeeded him as Holy Roman Emperor.

As emperor, Ferdinand wished for peace with France and Sweden, but the war would drag on for another 11 years, finally ending with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Composing of the Treaty of Munster with France and the Treaty of Osnabruck with Sweden, the Peace of Westphalia represented a major shift in the concept of sovereign nation-states and European power, especially in terms of national self-determination and non-interference. Ferdinand himself had in 1644 given the right for all rulers of German states to conduct their own foreign policy, which backfired on him and would contribute to the erosion of imperial authority in the Holy Roman Empire.

After the Peace of Westphalia, Ferdinand was busy enforcing and carrying out the terms of the treaty as well as getting rid of foreign soldiery from German lands. He soon reneged on the terms of the treaty by interfering in Italy in 1656, sending an army to assist Spain against France. As he was concluding an alliance with Poland to check Swedish aggression, Ferdinand died in 1657. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Copper engraving of Matthias (1557-1619), 34th Holy Roman emperor, by Emanuel van Meteren (1535-1612) and Simeon Ruytinck (-1621), 1614, Peace Palace Library, the Hague - Matthias (1557-1619) was the son of Emperor Maximilian II and younger brother of Emperor Rudolf II. He married his cousin, Archduchess Anna of Austria, becoming successor to his uncle, Archduke Ferdinand II. He was invited to the Netherlands by the rebellious provinces and offered the position of Governor-General in 1578, which he accepted despite the protestations of his uncle, King Philip II of Spain.  Matthias helped to set down the rules for religious peace and freedom of religion, and only returned home in 1581 after the Netherlands deposed Philip II to become fully independent. He became governor of Austria in 1593 by his brother Rudolf's appointment. He forced his brother to allow him to negotiate with the Hungarian revolts of 1605, resulting in the Peace of Vienna in 1606. He then forced his brother to yield to him the crowns of Hungary, Austria and Moravia in 1608, and then making him cede the Bohemian throne in 1611. By then Matthias had imprisoned his brother, where he remained till his death in 1612.  After Rudolf's death, Matthias ascended to Holy Roman emperor, and had to juggle between appeasing both the Catholic and Protestant states within the Holy Roman Empire, hoping to reach a compromise and strengthen the empire. The Bohemian Protestant revolt of 1618 provoked his strongly Catholic brother Maximilian III to imprison Matthias' advisors and take control of the empire, Matthias being too old and ailing to stop him. Matthias died a year later in 1619.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0036442.jpg
Germany: Copper engraving of Matthias (1557-1619), 34th Holy Roman emperor, by Emanuel van Meteren (1535-1612) and Simeon Ruytinck (-1621), 1614, Peace Palace Library, the Hague - Matthias (1557-1619) was the son of Emperor Maximilian II and younger brother of Emperor Rudolf II. He married his cousin, Archduchess Anna of Austria, becoming successor to his uncle, Archduke Ferdinand II. He was invited to the Netherlands by the rebellious provinces and offered the position of Governor-General in 1578, which he accepted despite the protestations of his uncle, King Philip II of Spain.

Matthias helped to set down the rules for religious peace and freedom of religion, and only returned home in 1581 after the Netherlands deposed Philip II to become fully independent. He became governor of Austria in 1593 by his brother Rudolf's appointment. He forced his brother to allow him to negotiate with the Hungarian revolts of 1605, resulting in the Peace of Vienna in 1606. He then forced his brother to yield to him the crowns of Hungary, Austria and Moravia in 1608, and then making him cede the Bohemian throne in 1611. By then Matthias had imprisoned his brother, where he remained till his death in 1612.

After Rudolf's death, Matthias ascended to Holy Roman emperor, and had to juggle between appeasing both the Catholic and Protestant states within the Holy Roman Empire, hoping to reach a compromise and strengthen the empire. The Bohemian Protestant revolt of 1618 provoked his strongly Catholic brother Maximilian III to imprison Matthias' advisors and take control of the empire, Matthias being too old and ailing to stop him. Matthias died a year later in 1619. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Copper engraving of Ferdinand II (1578-1637), 35th Holy Roman emperor, by Matthaus Merian the Elder (1593-1650), c. 1662 - Ferdinand II (1578-1637) was the son of Charles II, Archduke of Austria, and grandson of Emperor Ferdinand I. Ferdinand was part of a Catholic faction opposed to his cousin, Emperor Matthias, who was more tolerant to Protestantism. He became King of Bohemia in 1617, King of Hungary in 1618, and ascended to Holy Roman Emperor in 1619 after his cousin's death.  Ferdinand was a zealous Catholic and immediately worked to restore Catholicism as the only religion in the Holy Roman Empire, suppressing Protestantism wherever he could, leading to conflict with his non-Catholic subjects. He discarded the Letter of Majesty signed by the previous emperor, Rudolf II, which granted freedom of religion to the nobles and inhabitants of Bohemia. His absolutist policies and infringement on noble historical privileges led to the Bohemian Revolt. His actions during the Second Defenestration of Prague in 1618 were considered the first steps of the Thirty Years' War.  The Thirty Years' War raged across much of Central Europe, drawing in more and more factions, fighting either on the Catholic or Protestant side. It became one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, as well as being the deadliest European religious war, with more than eight million casualties. Ferdinand himself died in 1637, before the war ended, leaving his son Ferdinand III to deal with the war and try to manage an empire engulfed in chaos.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0036444.jpg
Germany: Copper engraving of Ferdinand II (1578-1637), 35th Holy Roman emperor, by Matthaus Merian the Elder (1593-1650), c. 1662 - Ferdinand II (1578-1637) was the son of Charles II, Archduke of Austria, and grandson of Emperor Ferdinand I. Ferdinand was part of a Catholic faction opposed to his cousin, Emperor Matthias, who was more tolerant to Protestantism. He became King of Bohemia in 1617, King of Hungary in 1618, and ascended to Holy Roman Emperor in 1619 after his cousin's death.

Ferdinand was a zealous Catholic and immediately worked to restore Catholicism as the only religion in the Holy Roman Empire, suppressing Protestantism wherever he could, leading to conflict with his non-Catholic subjects. He discarded the Letter of Majesty signed by the previous emperor, Rudolf II, which granted freedom of religion to the nobles and inhabitants of Bohemia. His absolutist policies and infringement on noble historical privileges led to the Bohemian Revolt. His actions during the Second Defenestration of Prague in 1618 were considered the first steps of the Thirty Years' War.

The Thirty Years' War raged across much of Central Europe, drawing in more and more factions, fighting either on the Catholic or Protestant side. It became one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, as well as being the deadliest European religious war, with more than eight million casualties. Ferdinand himself died in 1637, before the war ended, leaving his son Ferdinand III to deal with the war and try to manage an empire engulfed in chaos. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Henry (VII) (1211-1242), King of Germany, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Henry of Germany (1211-1242) was the only son of Emperor Frederick II with his first wife Constance of Aragon, and elder brother to future king Conrad IV. Henry was crowned King of Sicily in 1212, so that Frederick could pursue his claim to the crown of Germany, as an agreement between Frederick and Pope Innocent III had specified that Germany and Sicily should not be united under one ruler.  When the Pope died in 1216, Frederick reassumed the title of King of Sicily a year later and made Henry the Duke of Swabia instead. Henry was crowned as King of Germany in 1222, co-ruling with his father. He began to fall out with his father, his brash treatment against the imperial princes angering his father, who feared their discontent and was reliant on their support. Henry was outlawed by his father in 1234, resulting in him revolting, but he was brought to heel and forced to submit to his father in 1235. A trial saw him dethroned and stripped of his titles and holdings, with the crown and titles going to his younger brother Conrad.  Henry was imprisoned in various places for the last years of his life, finally dying in 1242 after falling from his horse while being moved to another location. Henry is numbered only in parentheses as he did not exercise sole kingship, and so as to not confuse him with the later Emperor Henry VII.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0036443.jpg
Germany: Henry (VII) (1211-1242), King of Germany, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Henry of Germany (1211-1242) was the only son of Emperor Frederick II with his first wife Constance of Aragon, and elder brother to future king Conrad IV. Henry was crowned King of Sicily in 1212, so that Frederick could pursue his claim to the crown of Germany, as an agreement between Frederick and Pope Innocent III had specified that Germany and Sicily should not be united under one ruler.

When the Pope died in 1216, Frederick reassumed the title of King of Sicily a year later and made Henry the Duke of Swabia instead. Henry was crowned as King of Germany in 1222, co-ruling with his father. He began to fall out with his father, his brash treatment against the imperial princes angering his father, who feared their discontent and was reliant on their support. Henry was outlawed by his father in 1234, resulting in him revolting, but he was brought to heel and forced to submit to his father in 1235. A trial saw him dethroned and stripped of his titles and holdings, with the crown and titles going to his younger brother Conrad.

Henry was imprisoned in various places for the last years of his life, finally dying in 1242 after falling from his horse while being moved to another location. Henry is numbered only in parentheses as he did not exercise sole kingship, and so as to not confuse him with the later Emperor Henry VII. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Italy: Valentinian III (419-455), Western Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Valentinian III (419-455) was the son of Emperor Constantius III, and nephew of former Emperor Honorius through his mother, Galla Placidia. He was also cousin to Theodosius II, Eastern Roman emperor. When his father died in 421, barely seven months into his co-rule, Valentinian was only two years old, and he fled with his mother and sister to Constantinople from the unwanted attentions of his uncle Honorius.  When Honorius died in 423 and the usurper Joannes took power, Theodosius recognised Valentinian as the true emperor of the West, and placed him on the throne in 425, aged only six. Due to his age, his mother ruled as regent in his stead, desperately attempting to stablise the Western Roman Empire and negotiating with the Huns. The empire continued to lose more territory however, and internal instability wracked the empire constantly. Valentinian finally became emperor in 437, but true power remained in the hands of others.  Attila the Hun's invasion of the Western Roman Empire, at the behest of Valentinian's own sister Honoria, devastated much of the western provinces and was only just stopped at the gates of Rome. Valentinian was eventually assassinated in 455 after murdering one of his powerful advisors, Aetius, the year previous. Overall, Valentinian's reign is marked by the continued dismemberment and decline of the Western Roman Empire.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0036440.jpg
Italy: Valentinian III (419-455), Western Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Valentinian III (419-455) was the son of Emperor Constantius III, and nephew of former Emperor Honorius through his mother, Galla Placidia. He was also cousin to Theodosius II, Eastern Roman emperor. When his father died in 421, barely seven months into his co-rule, Valentinian was only two years old, and he fled with his mother and sister to Constantinople from the unwanted attentions of his uncle Honorius.

When Honorius died in 423 and the usurper Joannes took power, Theodosius recognised Valentinian as the true emperor of the West, and placed him on the throne in 425, aged only six. Due to his age, his mother ruled as regent in his stead, desperately attempting to stablise the Western Roman Empire and negotiating with the Huns. The empire continued to lose more territory however, and internal instability wracked the empire constantly. Valentinian finally became emperor in 437, but true power remained in the hands of others.

Attila the Hun's invasion of the Western Roman Empire, at the behest of Valentinian's own sister Honoria, devastated much of the western provinces and was only just stopped at the gates of Rome. Valentinian was eventually assassinated in 455 after murdering one of his powerful advisors, Aetius, the year previous. Overall, Valentinian's reign is marked by the continued dismemberment and decline of the Western Roman Empire. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Engraving of Rudolf II (1552-1612), 33rd Holy Roman emperor, 17th-18th century - Rudolf II (1552-1612) was the eldest son and successor of Emperor Maximilian II, and spent eight formative years in the Spanish court of his maternal uncle Philip II, adopting a stiff and aloof manner typical of the more conservative Spanish nobility. He remained reserved and secretive for the rest of his life, less inclined to daily affairs of state and more interested in occult studies such as alchemy and astrology.  Rudolf became King of Hungary and Croatia in 1572, and by the time of his father's death in 1576, had also inherited the Bohemian, German and Holy Roman crowns. Rudolf dangled himself as a marital prize in various diplomatic negotiations, but like his contemporary, Queen Elizabeth I of England, he ultimately never married. Rudolf did have a succession of affairs with various women however, resulting in several illegitimate children. He was also religiously neutral, tolerant to Protestantism and other religions despite being raised in a Catholic court.  Rudolf's conflict with the Ottoman Empire would be his undoing. He started a long and indecisive war with the Ottomans in 1593 that lasted till 1606 and was known as The Long War. His Hungarian subjects revolted in 1604, tired from the fighting, and he was forced to cede the Hungarian crown to his younger brother, Archduke Matthias. Bohemian Protestants also pressed for greater religious liberty, and when Rudolf attempted to use his army to repress them in 1609, Matthias imprisoned Rudolf and forced him to cede the Bohemian crown as well. Rudolf died in 1612, having been stripped of all effective power aside from the empty title of Holy Roman Emperor.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0036427.jpg
Germany: Engraving of Rudolf II (1552-1612), 33rd Holy Roman emperor, 17th-18th century - Rudolf II (1552-1612) was the eldest son and successor of Emperor Maximilian II, and spent eight formative years in the Spanish court of his maternal uncle Philip II, adopting a stiff and aloof manner typical of the more conservative Spanish nobility. He remained reserved and secretive for the rest of his life, less inclined to daily affairs of state and more interested in occult studies such as alchemy and astrology.

Rudolf became King of Hungary and Croatia in 1572, and by the time of his father's death in 1576, had also inherited the Bohemian, German and Holy Roman crowns. Rudolf dangled himself as a marital prize in various diplomatic negotiations, but like his contemporary, Queen Elizabeth I of England, he ultimately never married. Rudolf did have a succession of affairs with various women however, resulting in several illegitimate children. He was also religiously neutral, tolerant to Protestantism and other religions despite being raised in a Catholic court.

Rudolf's conflict with the Ottoman Empire would be his undoing. He started a long and indecisive war with the Ottomans in 1593 that lasted till 1606 and was known as The Long War. His Hungarian subjects revolted in 1604, tired from the fighting, and he was forced to cede the Hungarian crown to his younger brother, Archduke Matthias. Bohemian Protestants also pressed for greater religious liberty, and when Rudolf attempted to use his army to repress them in 1609, Matthias imprisoned Rudolf and forced him to cede the Bohemian crown as well. Rudolf died in 1612, having been stripped of all effective power aside from the empty title of Holy Roman Emperor. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Copper engraving of Rudolf II (1552-1612), 33rd Holy Roman emperor, by Emanuel van Meteren (1535-1612) and Simeon Ruytinck (-1621), 1614, Peace Palace Library, the Hague - Rudolf II (1552-1612) was the eldest son and successor of Emperor Maximilian II, and spent eight formative years in the Spanish court of his maternal uncle Philip II, adopting a stiff and aloof manner typical of the more conservative Spanish nobility. He remained reserved and secretive for the rest of his life, less inclined to daily affairs of state and more interested in occult studies such as alchemy and astrology.  Rudolf became King of Hungary and Croatia in 1572, and by the time of his father's death in 1576, had also inherited the Bohemian, German and Holy Roman crowns. Rudolf dangled himself as a marital prize in various diplomatic negotiations, but like his contemporary, Queen Elizabeth I of England, he ultimately never married. Rudolf did have a succession of affairs with various women however, resulting in several illegitimate children. He was also religiously neutral, tolerant to Protestantism and other religions despite being raised in a Catholic court.  Rudolf's conflict with the Ottoman Empire would be his undoing. He started a long and indecisive war with the Ottomans in 1593 that lasted till 1606 and was known as The Long War. His Hungarian subjects revolted in 1604, tired from the fighting, and he was forced to cede the Hungarian crown to his younger brother, Archduke Matthias. Bohemian Protestants also pressed for greater religious liberty, and when Rudolf attempted to use his army to repress them in 1609, Matthias imprisoned Rudolf and forced him to cede the Bohemian crown as well. Rudolf died in 1612, having been stripped of all effective power aside from the empty title of Holy Roman Emperor.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0036428.jpg
Germany: Copper engraving of Rudolf II (1552-1612), 33rd Holy Roman emperor, by Emanuel van Meteren (1535-1612) and Simeon Ruytinck (-1621), 1614, Peace Palace Library, the Hague - Rudolf II (1552-1612) was the eldest son and successor of Emperor Maximilian II, and spent eight formative years in the Spanish court of his maternal uncle Philip II, adopting a stiff and aloof manner typical of the more conservative Spanish nobility. He remained reserved and secretive for the rest of his life, less inclined to daily affairs of state and more interested in occult studies such as alchemy and astrology.

Rudolf became King of Hungary and Croatia in 1572, and by the time of his father's death in 1576, had also inherited the Bohemian, German and Holy Roman crowns. Rudolf dangled himself as a marital prize in various diplomatic negotiations, but like his contemporary, Queen Elizabeth I of England, he ultimately never married. Rudolf did have a succession of affairs with various women however, resulting in several illegitimate children. He was also religiously neutral, tolerant to Protestantism and other religions despite being raised in a Catholic court.

Rudolf's conflict with the Ottoman Empire would be his undoing. He started a long and indecisive war with the Ottomans in 1593 that lasted till 1606 and was known as The Long War. His Hungarian subjects revolted in 1604, tired from the fighting, and he was forced to cede the Hungarian crown to his younger brother, Archduke Matthias. Bohemian Protestants also pressed for greater religious liberty, and when Rudolf attempted to use his army to repress them in 1609, Matthias imprisoned Rudolf and forced him to cede the Bohemian crown as well. Rudolf died in 1612, having been stripped of all effective power aside from the empty title of Holy Roman Emperor. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Ferdinand I (1503-1564), 31st Holy Roman emperor, by Casparis Ursini Velii, 1762, Vienna - Ferdinand I (1503-1564) was the son of Philip I of Castile and Queen Joanna I of Castile, grandson of Emperor Maximilian I and younger brother of future emperor Charles V. Born and raised in Spain, he was sent to Flanders in 1518. When Charles became Holy Roman emperor in 1519, Ferdinand was entrusted with the governing of their hereditary Austrian lands, becoming Archduke of Austria and adopting the German culture as his own.  When Charles V abdicated in 1556, Ferdinand was elected as his successor to the imperial throne, becoming Holy Roman emperor in 1558. He continued to ably rule the Holy Roman Empire until his death in 1564, leaving an enduring legacy from his handling of the Protestant Reformation and his efforts against the Ottoman Empire.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0036426.jpg
Germany: Ferdinand I (1503-1564), 31st Holy Roman emperor, by Casparis Ursini Velii, 1762, Vienna - Ferdinand I (1503-1564) was the son of Philip I of Castile and Queen Joanna I of Castile, grandson of Emperor Maximilian I and younger brother of future emperor Charles V. Born and raised in Spain, he was sent to Flanders in 1518. When Charles became Holy Roman emperor in 1519, Ferdinand was entrusted with the governing of their hereditary Austrian lands, becoming Archduke of Austria and adopting the German culture as his own.

When Charles V abdicated in 1556, Ferdinand was elected as his successor to the imperial throne, becoming Holy Roman emperor in 1558. He continued to ably rule the Holy Roman Empire until his death in 1564, leaving an enduring legacy from his handling of the Protestant Reformation and his efforts against the Ottoman Empire. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: 'Philippine Welser before Emperor Ferdinand I', illustration from The Garden Arbor, 1890, Leipzig - Ferdinand I (1503-1564) was the son of Philip I of Castile and Queen Joanna I of Castile, grandson of Emperor Maximilian I and younger brother of future emperor Charles V. Born and raised in Spain, he was sent to Flanders in 1518. When Charles became Holy Roman emperor in 1519, Ferdinand was entrusted with the governing of their hereditary Austrian lands, becoming Archduke of Austria and adopting the German culture as his own.  When Charles V abdicated in 1556, Ferdinand was elected as his successor to the imperial throne, becoming Holy Roman emperor in 1558. He continued to ably rule the Holy Roman Empire until his death in 1564, leaving an enduring legacy from his handling of the Protestant Reformation and his efforts against the Ottoman Empire.  Philippine Welser (1527 – 24 April 1580) was the morganatic wife of Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria. She was granted the titles Baroness of Zinnenburg, Margravine of Burgau, Landgravine of Mellenburg and Countess of Oberhohenberg and Niederhohenberg.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0036424.jpg
Germany: 'Philippine Welser before Emperor Ferdinand I', illustration from The Garden Arbor, 1890, Leipzig - Ferdinand I (1503-1564) was the son of Philip I of Castile and Queen Joanna I of Castile, grandson of Emperor Maximilian I and younger brother of future emperor Charles V. Born and raised in Spain, he was sent to Flanders in 1518. When Charles became Holy Roman emperor in 1519, Ferdinand was entrusted with the governing of their hereditary Austrian lands, becoming Archduke of Austria and adopting the German culture as his own.

When Charles V abdicated in 1556, Ferdinand was elected as his successor to the imperial throne, becoming Holy Roman emperor in 1558. He continued to ably rule the Holy Roman Empire until his death in 1564, leaving an enduring legacy from his handling of the Protestant Reformation and his efforts against the Ottoman Empire.

Philippine Welser (1527 – 24 April 1580) was the morganatic wife of Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria. She was granted the titles Baroness of Zinnenburg, Margravine of Burgau, Landgravine of Mellenburg and Countess of Oberhohenberg and Niederhohenberg. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany / France: Charles II (823-877), 5th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Charles II (823-877), more commonly nicknamed Charles the Bald, was the son of Emperor Louis the Pious from his second wife. It was his mother's attempts to ensure Charles was included in Louis' succession plans that led to the multiple civil wars by Charles' half-brothers against his father.  When Charles' father died in 840, another civil war broke out between the emperor's sons, with Charles allying himself with his half-brother Louis the German against the new emperor, Lothair I. They defeated Lothair in 841, and cemented their alliance with the Oaths of Strasbourg and the Treaty of Verdun in 843, where he received the Kingdom of West Francia. His reign was peaceful for many years until 858, when Louis the German invaded West Francia, invited by disaffected nobles wanting to get rid of Charles. Louis the German was eventually repulsed, but other matters preoccupied Charles, such as unsuccessful attempts to seize the kingdoms of his nephews or the repeated rebellions and attacks by the Bretons and Vikings.  When Emperor Louis II died in 875, Charles became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Louis the German, furious he was not chosen, retaliated by invading and devastating Charles' lands, though he died a year later. While travelling back from Italy to defend his lands from his nephew Carloman, son of Louis the German, Charles fell ill and died in 877, with his son Louis the Stammerer (846-879) succeeding him as King of West Francia but not as emperor.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0036425.jpg
Germany / France: Charles II (823-877), 5th Holy Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Charles II (823-877), more commonly nicknamed Charles the Bald, was the son of Emperor Louis the Pious from his second wife. It was his mother's attempts to ensure Charles was included in Louis' succession plans that led to the multiple civil wars by Charles' half-brothers against his father.

When Charles' father died in 840, another civil war broke out between the emperor's sons, with Charles allying himself with his half-brother Louis the German against the new emperor, Lothair I. They defeated Lothair in 841, and cemented their alliance with the Oaths of Strasbourg and the Treaty of Verdun in 843, where he received the Kingdom of West Francia. His reign was peaceful for many years until 858, when Louis the German invaded West Francia, invited by disaffected nobles wanting to get rid of Charles. Louis the German was eventually repulsed, but other matters preoccupied Charles, such as unsuccessful attempts to seize the kingdoms of his nephews or the repeated rebellions and attacks by the Bretons and Vikings.

When Emperor Louis II died in 875, Charles became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Louis the German, furious he was not chosen, retaliated by invading and devastating Charles' lands, though he died a year later. While travelling back from Italy to defend his lands from his nephew Carloman, son of Louis the German, Charles fell ill and died in 877, with his son Louis the Stammerer (846-879) succeeding him as King of West Francia but not as emperor. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Maximilian I (1459-1519), 29th Holy Roman emperor, with his wife Mary of Burgundy, and his son Philip, from Military and Religious Life in the Middle Ages and at the Period of the Renaissance by Paul Lacroix / P.L. Jacob (1806-1884), 1870 - Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519), the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, and Eleanor of Portugal, was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never in fact crowned by the Pope, the journey to Rome always being too risky.  He had ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of his father's reign, from c. 1483. He expanded the influence of the House of Habsburg through war and his marriage in 1477 to Mary of Burgundy, the heiress to the Duchy of Burgundy, but he also lost the Austrian territories in today's Switzerland to the Swiss Confederacy.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0036422.jpg
Germany: Maximilian I (1459-1519), 29th Holy Roman emperor, with his wife Mary of Burgundy, and his son Philip, from Military and Religious Life in the Middle Ages and at the Period of the Renaissance by Paul Lacroix / P.L. Jacob (1806-1884), 1870 - Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519), the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, and Eleanor of Portugal, was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never in fact crowned by the Pope, the journey to Rome always being too risky.

He had ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of his father's reign, from c. 1483. He expanded the influence of the House of Habsburg through war and his marriage in 1477 to Mary of Burgundy, the heiress to the Duchy of Burgundy, but he also lost the Austrian territories in today's Switzerland to the Swiss Confederacy. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: Maximilian I (1459-1519), 29th Holy Roman emperor, being crowned by the Pope, from the book Military and Religious Life in the Middle Ages and at the Period of the Renaissance by Paul Lacroix / P.L. Jacob (1806-1884), 1870 - Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519), the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, and Eleanor of Portugal, was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never in fact crowned by the Pope, the journey to Rome always being too risky.  He had ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of his father's reign, from c. 1483. He expanded the influence of the House of Habsburg through war and his marriage in 1477 to Mary of Burgundy, the heiress to the Duchy of Burgundy, but he also lost the Austrian territories in today's Switzerland to the Swiss Confederacy.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0036423.jpg
Germany: Maximilian I (1459-1519), 29th Holy Roman emperor, being crowned by the Pope, from the book Military and Religious Life in the Middle Ages and at the Period of the Renaissance by Paul Lacroix / P.L. Jacob (1806-1884), 1870 - Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519), the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, and Eleanor of Portugal, was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never in fact crowned by the Pope, the journey to Rome always being too risky.

He had ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of his father's reign, from c. 1483. He expanded the influence of the House of Habsburg through war and his marriage in 1477 to Mary of Burgundy, the heiress to the Duchy of Burgundy, but he also lost the Austrian territories in today's Switzerland to the Swiss Confederacy. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany / France: Lothair I (795-855), 3rd Holy Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Lothair I (795-855), also known as Lothar I, was the eldest son of Emperor Louis the Pious and grew up in the court of his grandfather, Emperor Charlemagne. When Louis became sole emperor in 814, he sent Lothair to govern Bavaria in 815. Lothair was crowned as co-emperor and declared as principal heir in 817, and would be overlord to his younger brothers, Pippin of Aquitaine and Louis the German, as well as his cousin Bernard of Italy.  When his father died in 840, Lothair ignored all previous plans for partitioning and claimed the whole of the Holy Roman Empire for himself, leading to another civil war which lasted around three years.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0036421.jpg
Germany / France: Lothair I (795-855), 3rd Holy Roman emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Lothair I (795-855), also known as Lothar I, was the eldest son of Emperor Louis the Pious and grew up in the court of his grandfather, Emperor Charlemagne. When Louis became sole emperor in 814, he sent Lothair to govern Bavaria in 815. Lothair was crowned as co-emperor and declared as principal heir in 817, and would be overlord to his younger brothers, Pippin of Aquitaine and Louis the German, as well as his cousin Bernard of Italy.

When his father died in 840, Lothair ignored all previous plans for partitioning and claimed the whole of the Holy Roman Empire for himself, leading to another civil war which lasted around three years. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Germany: 'Emperor Frederick III and Duke Charles of Burgundy Meeting in Trier in 1473', woodcut from the White Kunig, 15th century, Austrian National Library, Vienna - Frederick III (1415-1493), also known as Frederick the Fat and Frederick the Peaceful, was the eldest son of the Inner Austrian duke Ernest the Iron, a member of the Habsburg dynasty. He became duke of Inner Austria in 1424 at the age of nine, but would not be awarded rule until 1435, with his younger brother Albert asserting his rights as co-ruler. By 1439, Frederick had become the undisputed head of the Habsburg dynasty.  Frederick died in 1493, aged 77, bleeding to death after having his infected left leg amputated.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0036415.jpg
Germany: 'Emperor Frederick III and Duke Charles of Burgundy Meeting in Trier in 1473', woodcut from the White Kunig, 15th century, Austrian National Library, Vienna - Frederick III (1415-1493), also known as Frederick the Fat and Frederick the Peaceful, was the eldest son of the Inner Austrian duke Ernest the Iron, a member of the Habsburg dynasty. He became duke of Inner Austria in 1424 at the age of nine, but would not be awarded rule until 1435, with his younger brother Albert asserting his rights as co-ruler. By 1439, Frederick had become the undisputed head of the Habsburg dynasty.

Frederick died in 1493, aged 77, bleeding to death after having his infected left leg amputated. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
Turkey / Byzantium: Philippicus (-713), Byzantine emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Philippicus (-713), also known as Philippikos Bardanes, was the son of an Armenian patrician in the Byzantine Empire. Not much is known of Philippicus' early years, but he soon had aspirations for the imperial throne, relying heavily on the support of the Monothelite party. However, his attempts during the first great rebellion against Emperor Justinian II failed with his relegation to Cephalonia by Tiberius, who took the throne for himself.  Unhappy with his situation, Philippicus bided his time and began inciting the local inhabitants to revolt, aided by the Khazars. After Justinian II had returned to the throne, Philippicus finally struck and managed to seize Constantinople, leading to Justinian's later assassination as he attempted to rally support in the provinces.  Philippicus immediately began his reign by changing the religious leaders of the empire to suit his sect, leading to the Roman Church refusing to recognise him. He also faced Bulgarian raids and Arabian attacks, ultimately resulting in a rebellion in Thrace which saw several officers enter the capital city and blind Philippicus in 713. He died later in the same year, succeeded by his prinicipal secretary Artemius, who took the name Anastasius II.  ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works
ECPA0036413.jpg
Turkey / Byzantium: Philippicus (-713), Byzantine emperor, from the book Romanorvm imperatorvm effigies: elogijs ex diuersis scriptoribus per Thomam Treteru S. Mariae Transtyberim canonicum collectis, 1583 - Philippicus (-713), also known as Philippikos Bardanes, was the son of an Armenian patrician in the Byzantine Empire. Not much is known of Philippicus' early years, but he soon had aspirations for the imperial throne, relying heavily on the support of the Monothelite party. However, his attempts during the first great rebellion against Emperor Justinian II failed with his relegation to Cephalonia by Tiberius, who took the throne for himself.

Unhappy with his situation, Philippicus bided his time and began inciting the local inhabitants to revolt, aided by the Khazars. After Justinian II had returned to the throne, Philippicus finally struck and managed to seize Constantinople, leading to Justinian's later assassination as he attempted to rally support in the provinces.

Philippicus immediately began his reign by changing the religious leaders of the empire to suit his sect, leading to the Roman Church refusing to recognise him. He also faced Bulgarian raids and Arabian attacks, ultimately resulting in a rebellion in Thrace which saw several officers enter the capital city and blind Philippicus in 713. He died later in the same year, succeeded by his prinicipal secretary Artemius, who took the name Anastasius II. ©Pictures From History/ The Image Works

best live chat